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\fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 \sbasedon0 \snext20 \ssemihidden footer;}{\*\cs21 \additive \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \sbasedon10 page number;}{\*\cs22 \additive \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24 \sbasedon10 \slink17 \slocked \ssemihidden Endnote Text Char;}}{\*\rsidtbl \rsid9907182\rsid10765453}{\mmathPr\mmathFont0\mbrkBin0\mbrkBinSub0 \msmallFrac0\mdispDef0\mlMargin0\mrMargin0\mwrapRight0\mintLim0\mnaryLim0}{\info{\title Thoreau would have loved Japan}{\author Russell Goodman}{\operator Russell Goodman}{\creatim\yr2011\mo9\dy1\hr16\min15}{\revtim\yr2011\mo9\dy1\hr16\min15}{\version2} {\edmins1}{\nofpages14}{\nofwords3292}{\nofchars16460}{\*\company University of New Mexico}{\nofcharsws23044}{\vern33039}{\*\saveprevpict}}{\*\xmlnstbl {\xmlns1 http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/word/2003/wordml}} \paperw12240\paperh15840\margl1800\margr1800\margt1440\margb1440\gutter0\ltrsect \enddoc\aenddoc\trackmoves0\trackformatting1\donotembedsysfont0\relyonvml0\donotembedlingdata1\grfdocevents0\validatexml0\showplaceholdtext0\ignoremixedcontent0\saveinvalidxml0\showxmlerrors0\aftnnar\noxlattoyen \expshrtn\noultrlspc\dntblnsbdb\nospaceforul\formshade\horzdoc\dghspace180\dgvspace180\dghorigin1701\dgvorigin1984\dghshow0\dgvshow0 \jexpand\viewkind1\viewscale125\pgbrdrhead\pgbrdrfoot\splytwnine\ftnlytwnine\htmautsp\nolnhtadjtbl\useltbaln\alntblind\lytcalctblwd\lyttblrtgr\lnbrkrule\nobrkwrptbl\snaptogridincell\allowfieldendsel\wrppunct \asianbrkrule\nojkernpunct\rsidroot15025531\newtblstyruls\nogrowautofit\utinl \fet1{\*\wgrffmtfilter 013f}\ilfomacatclnup0\stylesortmethod0\ltrpar \sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj {\footerr \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s20\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\tqc\tx4320\tqr\tx8640\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1033 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs21\insrsid10765453 \tab }{\field{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs21\fs20\insrsid10765453 PAGE }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\alang1024 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs21\fs20\lang1024\langfe1024\noproof\insrsid9907182 14}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\insrsid10765453 \par }}{\*\pnseclvl1\pnucrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl2\pnucltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl3\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl4\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta )}} {\*\pnseclvl5\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl6\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl7\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl8 \pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl9\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}\pard\plain \ltrpar\qc \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1 \widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid10765453 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1033 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid10765453 Reflections on Emerson and Non-European Thought \par }\pard \ltrpar\qc \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid10765453 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 "A good scholar will find Aristophanes & Hafiz & Rabelais full of American history" (JMN 10:35) \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid10765453 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi720\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid10765453 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 In his forthcoming paper "Walden in Tokyo," Stanley Cavell considers the question of how much we can unders tand another culture. He cites Wittgenstein's observation that one "human being can be a complete enigma to another," and his example of coming into a strange country where we can't find our feet with the people. He considers Heidegger's claim that no o utsider to Japanese culture can understand the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 No}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 play, but he expresses his "distrust" of "Heidegger's assurance" on this point, and especially of "the implication that a culture while opaque to outsiders is quite transparent to its natives." Thoreau, who is Cavell's main subject in the essay, found both his countrymen and himself strange in many ways, but suffered no doubts about the sanity and comprehensibility of the Greek, Roman, Chinese, Indian, and Persian authors whom he incorporates on an equal ba sis into the fabric of }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Walden}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 . \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi540\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid10765453 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 My subject here is Thoreau's teacher Ralph Waldo Emerson, who was as interested in non-European thought as was Thoreau, and who states that "one mind wrote all the great books." The purpose of books, he holds in "The American Scholar," is to inspire \emdash to raise and cheer us. He took his inspirations where he could find them. "If the picture is good," he wrote in his }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Journal}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 , "who cares who made it? ...the authorship of a good sentence, whether Vedas or Hermes or Chaldean oracle, or Jack Straw, is totally a trifle for pedants to discuss" (JMN 8:570). In this paper I will briefly consider three traditions\emdash Confucian, Hindu, and Islamic\emdash as they appear in Emerson's work. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\nowidctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2240\tx2800\tx3360\tx3920\tx4480\tx5040\tx5600\tx6160\tx6720\wrapdefault\faauto\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid10765453 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 \tab Emerson had no access to Daoism or the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 I Ching}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 , but he did have Joshua Marshman's translation}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f157\insrsid10765453 }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f157\insrsid10765453 The Works of Confucius}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f157\insrsid10765453 (}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 Serampore, 1809), and }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 Mencius}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 in David Collie's translation (}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 The Chinese Classical Work Commonly Called the Four Books}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 (Malacca, 1828)). Passages from Confucius make their way into a remarkable l ecture on "Religion" that Emerson delivered in the late eighteen thirties, where he portrays Confucius as among a class of philosophical and religious heroes who pursued virtue rather than worldly riches or power: Socrates, St. Paul, St. Thomas More and Luther. "The honorable man is serene and enlarged in mind," Emerson quotes Confucius as saying, whereas "the low man is always anxiously fearing." (EL 3:118). \par \tab Emerson is attuned to some of the main elements of the specifically Confucian form of moral perfectionism\emdash to filial piety for example, and to the moral or compassionate heart. Both of these are present in the following passage from his lecture "The Heart": \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li630\ri0\sl480\slmult1\nowidctlpar\tx560\tx1120\tx1680\tx2240\tx2800\tx3360\tx3920\tx4480\tx5040\tx5600\tx6160\tx6720\wrapdefault\faauto\rin0\lin630\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 The nature of love is abandonment. Calculation may do the same things but can never be i t. ...There is no man so low but knows well the difference between the service of love and the service of calculation although both come to him in the same shape of an equal pecuniary benefit. Confucius says, "The filial piety of the present day is estee med merely ability to nourish a parent. This care is extended to a dog or a horse. Without veneration, what is the difference?" (EL2: 282). \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi720\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 Although Emerson paid serious attention to Chinese philosophy in the eighteen thirties, and frequently cited Confuc ius as among the great teachers and writers of the world, he became increasingly drawn to the profusion of metaphysical writing from India that became available in English translation at the end of the eighteenth and the early part of the nineteenth centu ry. As he began to develop his own post-Christian philosophy in the eighteen thirties and to read texts such as the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Vishnu Purana}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 and the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Laws of Manu}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 , he came to think of "the Indian Vedas" along with texts of Confucius, as containing "sentences which mak e us feel the exceeding greatness of our moral sentiment." (EL 2:89). \par After the publication of "Experience" in 1844, during the years he was composing }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Representative Men}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 (1851), Emerson sought a copy of Charles Wilkins\rquote 1785 translation of the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Bhagavad Gita}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 , and records the happy event of the book's arrival in a letter to Elizabeth Hoar in June, 1845: "extracts...I have often admired," he writes, "but never before held the book in my hands."}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs18\super\insrsid10765453 \chftn {\footnote\ftnalt \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s17\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1033 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 { \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs18\super\insrsid10765453 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 The Letters of Ralph Waldo Emerson}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 , vol. 3, p. 290.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 A book that had an even greater impact, from the evidence of his journal and his later essays, was the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Visnu Purana}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 , which dates from the seventh century C. E. A collection of legends, ritual, and metaphysics, the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453\charrsid15025531 Purana}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 was translated into English by Horace Hayman Wilson in 1840. Wilson included extensive notes that made Indian philosophy accessible to Emerson for the first time. \par Emerson copied pages of quotations from the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Vishnu Purana}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 in his journal, and some of them make their way in to the essays published as }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Representative Men}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 . In "Plato; or the Philosophe r," for example, Emerson writes of the "terrific unity" towards which speculation tends, and illustrates the point with a passage from the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Visnu Purana}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 : \u8220\'d2\rquote The whole world is but a manifestation of Vishnu, who is identical with all things, and is to be reg arded by the wise as not differing from, but as the same as, themselves. I neither am going nor coming, nor is my dwelling in any one place, nor art thou, nor are others, others; nor am I, I\rquote " (CW 4:29). \par Emerson constructs a Plato who is as much Asian as European, an idea he introduces at first biographically: \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li540\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin540\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 Plato absorbed the learning of his times...then his master Socrates; and, finding himself still capable of a larger synthesis,\emdash beyond all example then or since,\emdash he traveled into Italy, to gain what Pythagoras had for him; then into Egypt, and perhaps still farther East, to import the other element which Europe wanted, into the European mind" (CW 4:25). \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi720\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 The "other element which Europe wanted," Emerson holds, is "unity," which Plato is said to have "imbibed ... in Egypt and in Eastern pilgrimages.... The unity of Asia and the detail of Europe; the infinitude of the Asiatic soul and the defining, result-loving, machine-making, surface-seeking, operagoing Europe, Plato came to join, and, by contact , to enhance the energy of each" (CW 4:30-1). As an example of "the unity of Asia" Emerson cites a text from the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Visnu Purana}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 : }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 "The whole world is but a manifestation of Vishnu, who is identical with all things, and is to be regarded by the wise as not di ffering from, but as the same as, themselves. I neither am going nor coming, nor is my dwellng in any one place, nor art thou, thou, nor are others, others; nor am I, I" (CW 4:29). \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 There is no need to deny that unity is a great theme in the West, for as Emerson rightly says and as his own case illustrates, "in all nations there are minds which incline to dwell in the conception of the fundamental Unity." But he adds that this tendency towards unity "finds its highest expression in the religious writings of the East, and chiefly in the Indian scriptures, in the Vedas, the Bhagavat Geeta, and the Vishnu Purana" (CW4:28). As there is to this day no evidence that Plato either visited India or knew any Indian texts, philosophers or doctrines, it is more appr opriate to take Emerson's Plato to be a representative of Emerson himself, a man who in the summer of 1845 began making lists of contrasting East-West properties and tendencies on the same pages of his journal on which he was recording passages from the } {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Visnu Purana}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi540\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 Hinduism is also a presence in Emerson's last great work, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 The Conduct of Life}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 (1860). "Fate," for example, shows the influence of another aspect of Hinduism than unity, its concern with }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 karma}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 : \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li540\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin540\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 In the Hindoo fables, Vishnu follows Maya throu gh all her ascending changes, from insect and crawfish up to elephant; whatever form she took, he took the male form of that kind, until she became at last woman and goddess, and he a man and a god. The limitations refine as the soul purifies, but the r ing of necessity is always perched at the top (CW 6:11). \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li90\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\tx0\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin90\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 There is a countermovement in the essay, however, away from fate and towards freedom, that relies on the twin ideas that "intellect annuls fate," (CW 6:14) and \par that "will" and "the moral sentiment" may counter it. Emerson jumps from Hinduism to the writings of the fourteenth century Persian Sufi poet, Hafiz, to make this point.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs18\f4\super\insrsid10765453 \chftn {\footnote\ftnalt \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s17\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1033 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 { \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs18\super\insrsid10765453 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 See the note in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 The Collected Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971- , vol. 6, pp. 91-2.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 He writes: \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li540\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\tx0\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin540\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 A text of heroism, a name and anecdote of courage, are not arguments, but sallies of freedom. One of these is the verse of the Persian Hafiz, "'Tis written on the gate of Heaven, 'Wo unto him who suffers himself to be betrayed by Fate!'" Does the reading of history make us fatalists? What courage does not the opposite opinion show! (CW 6:16). \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid10765453 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 Emerson is not a compatibilist, for he persists in seeing a clash, not compatibility, between freedom and fate; but he nevertheless maintains that for all the inability of our intellect to grasp how it could be, nature nevertheless manifests "the cunning co-presence of two elements"(CW 6:26), fate and freedom. Hafiz makes the case for freedom, while the Hindu writers of the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453\charrsid15025531 Visnu Purana}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 make the case for fate. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi540\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid10765453 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 Islam appears in Emerson's writing well before he wrote "Fate." Hafiz is mentioned in "History" (1841), for ex ample, along with Aesop, Homer, Ariosto, and Chaucer, as one of the great writers, in whom a reader may find "his own secret biography ... jotted down before he was born" (CW 1:17). Two of the essays in the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 Essays, First Series}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 , \u8220\'d2Love\u8221\'d3 and \u8220\'d2Heroism,\u8221\'d3 carry Islamic epigraphs. "Love" begins with lines Emerson identifies as from the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 Koran}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 : "I was as a gem concealed; Me my burning ray revealed" (CW 2:97).}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs18\f4\super\insrsid10765453 \chftn {\footnote\ftnalt \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s17\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1033 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs18\super\insrsid10765453 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 In fact these lines come not from the Koran but from }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Practical Philosophy of the Mohammedan People, a Translation of the Akhlah-I-Jalaly}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 \uc1\u8230\'c9. London, 1839 (see the note at CW 2:243).}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 The gem concealed, Emerson argues in the essay, is a higher love that is anticipated by "the warm loves and tears that [sweep] over us like clouds" (CW 2:110). "Heroism" begins with an epigraph from \u8220\'d2Mahomet\u8221\'d3 : "Paradise is under the shadow of swords,"}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs18\f4\super\insrsid10765453 \chftn {\footnote\ftnalt \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s17\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1 \widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1033 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs18\super\insrsid10765453 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 Emerson\rquote s source is Simon Ockley\rquote s }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 History of the Saracens}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 .}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 a remark that should be seen in the context of an address published in the same year entitled "Man the Reformer."}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs18\f4\super\insrsid10765453 \chftn {\footnote\ftnalt \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s17\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1033 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs18\super\insrsid10765453 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 Published in the transcendentalist journal }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 The Dial}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 in 1841 and then in Emerson's }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 Nature, Essays, and Addresses}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 in 1849.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 Emerson there portrays the founder of Islam as a man of self-command, and the victories of the Arab armies as the triumph of principle and of needed reform: "Every great and commanding moment in the annals of the world is the triumph of some enthusiasm. The victories of the Arabs after Mahomet, who in a few years, from a small and mean beginning, established a larger empire than that of Rome, is an example." Emerson goes on to mention Caliph Omar, Medina and "the conquest of Jerusalem," al l in admiring terms (CW 1:157-8), but he qualifies his approval: "there will dawn ere long on our politics, on our modes of living, a nobler morning than that Arabian faith, in the sentiment of love." Is this a plea for Christianity? Not exactly: "This g reat, overgrown, dead Christendom of ours still keeps alive at least the name of a lover of mankind. But one day all men will be lovers; and every calamity will be dissolved in the universal sunshine" (CW 159). Where is this sunshine to be found? Emer son turns not to Christianity but back to Islam, to an "Arabian poet" he read in Goethe's German translation and retranslated into English: \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li720\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\tx810\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin720\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 "Sunshine was he \par In the winter day; \par And in the midsummer \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li720\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\tx810\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin720\itap0\pararsid10765453 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 Coolness and shade." (CW1:160) \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi450\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 The two aspects of Islam presented in these writings from 1841\emdash the conquering/reforming and the loving\emdash reappear in one of Emerson's most surprising essays, "Manners," published in the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 Essays}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 , }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 Second Series}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 of 1844. Whereas "Manners" might seem by its title to be about table manners , clothing, or ceremony, it is in fact about power and creative lawgiving: "My gentleman gives the law where he is;...He is good company for pirates." Emerson then mentions the Arab conqueror "Saladin\u8221\'d3 as such a gentleman. "The famous gentlemen of Asia and Europe have been of this strong type: Saladin, Sapor, the Cid, Julius Caesar, Scipio, Alexander, Pericles, and the lordliest personages. They sat very carelessly in their chairs.... (CW 3:75). \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 \tab In the essay's last two paragraphs, however, Emerson tur ns towards love, still within a system of Islamic imagery. All fashion and courtesy, he maintains, "humbles itself before the cause and fountain of honor, creator of titles and dignities, namely, the heart of love." This "rich heart," without which "wea lth is an ugly beggar," is the subject of a story about a Persian beggar whom Emerson names Osman: \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li450\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin450\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 \tab The Shah at Schiraz could not afford to be so bountiful as the poor Osman who dwelt at his gate. Osman had a humanity so broad and deep, that although his speech was so bold and free with the Koran, as to disgust all the dervishes, yet was there never a poor outcast, eccentric, or insane man, some fool who had cut off beard, or who had been mutilated under a vow, or had a pet madness in his brain, but fled at once to him, \emdash that great heart lay there so sunny and hospitable in the centre of the country, \emdash that it seemed as if the instinct of all sufferers drew them to his side. And the madness which he harbored, he did not share. Is not this to be rich? This only to be rightly rich? (CW3: 90). \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 \tab Who is this Osman? Because of the spelling of "Schiraz" the editors of the }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 Collected Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 suspect a link to Hafiz, whose works Emerson knew only in German translations. But they add that although Schiraz figures in Hafiz's poetry, Osman does not. The figure of Osman,\emdash it is the Turkish version of the Arabic }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 Osama}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 \emdash appears to be an Emersonian invention, a representation of the ideal man or ideal poet. Osman appears in many passages in Emerson's journals.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs18\f4\super\insrsid10765453 \chftn {\footnote\ftnalt \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s17\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1033 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs18\super\insrsid10765453 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 See CW 3: 210-11.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi540\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 If Osman/Osama is an Emersonian invention, he is also an Emersonian character in his "bold and free" speech with the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 Koran}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 , speech that corresponds to the "free and brave" interpretations Emerson calls for in "The American Scholar." The Emersonian scholar, aware that books are potentially prisons, engages in "creative reading, as well as creative writing\u8221\'d3 (CW 1:58). \par Osman's bold and free speech does resemble that of Hafiz, whom Emerson came to know in depth after he purchased }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 Edward von Hammer's translation of Hafiz's }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Divan}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 in 1846. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 "Hafiz," Emerson writes in his }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 Journal}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 , is \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li540\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin540\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 characterized by a perfect intellectual emancipation which also he provokes in the reader. Nothing stops him. .... He is not to be scared by a name, or a religi on. He fears nothing. He sees too far;... such is the only man I wish to see and to be. The scholar's courage is as distinct as the soldier's and the statesman's\emdash and a man who has it not cannot write for me (JMN X:165). \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid10765453 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 Osman and Hafiz, like Emerson him self, are religious figures who refuse to be intimidated by \u8220\'d2a name, or a religion,\u8221\'d3 and whose free speech puts them as much as odds with the Shah\rquote s Islamic monarchy as Emerson was with what he calls "this eastern monarchy of a Christianity" (CW 1:82). No wonder Osman "disgusted all the dervishes," the more conventional holy men. But if Osman/Osama makes bold and free with the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 Koran}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 , he does not make bold and free with other people. He is a great absorbing heart in the center of the country, who can take in the world's pain and not repay it with more pain: "the madness which he harbored, he did not share." \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi450\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 The "Arabian poet" of "Man the Reformer" is said to be "sunshine on a cloudy day," and the poet/sage Osman of "Manners" is "sunny and hospitable." The sun is also central to the most glorious Islamic image in Emerson's writing, deep in one of his greatest essays, "Experience.\u8221\'d3 \u8220\'d2Experience\u8221\'d3 depicts a pervasive disappointment and frustration in life, but also moments of clearing, when one finds the un iverse "warm with the latency [of[ ... a musical perfection," and an "Ideal journeying always with us, the heaven without rent or seam." Although the heaven or Ideal is "always with us," we do not often recognize it, however, and in this section of his e ssay Emerson continues with an account, a sort of phenomenology, of our infrequent but potent moments of recognition. It is here that a sunny Islam once again makes its appearance: \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li450\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin450\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 Do but observe the mode of our illumination. When I converse with a prof ound mind, or if at any time being alone I have good thoughts, I do not at once arrive at satisfactions, as when, being thirsty, I drink water, or go to the fire, being cold: no! but I am at first apprised of my vicinity to a new and excellent region of life. By persisting to read or to think, this region gives further sign of itself, as it were in flashes of light, in sudden discoveries of its profound beauty and repose..... I clap my hands in infantine joy and amazement, before the first opening to m e of this august magnificence, old with the love and homage of innumerable ages, young with the life of life, the sunbright Mecca of the desert. And what a future it opens! I feel a new heart beating with the love of the new beauty. I am ready to die ou t of nature, and be born again into this new yet unapproachable America I have found in the West (CW 3:41). \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 Emerson conjoins Mecca and America within a few sentences of one another, as equal emblems of love, respect, and amazement. His language, specifical ly his repetition of the word "this," suggests, though it does not assert, their identity. Both the sunbright Mecca and the new yet unapproachable America are glimpsed, not steadily seen. Both are openings to something of immense import, and both are sti ll to be formed\emdash "young with the love of life\u8221\'d3 on the one hand, \u8220\'d2new\u8221\'d3 on the other. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi450\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid10765453 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 Where is this sunbright Mecca/ new yet unapproachable America? True to the title of his essay, Emerson finds it in the course of our experience, in conversations with prof ound minds, in reading and thinking. The "mode" of these openings or illuminations, Emerson states, is not that of arrival or satisfaction, but of energizing promise\emdash not like going to the fire being cold, more like the first pressure of the fire's light. Emerson\rquote s moments of illumination promise new discoveries of beauty and repose, even as his essay records a life of stupefaction and loss. \par \par I}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 t is common now to think of a clash of civilizations\emdash between the West and Islam, for example. Yet in Emerson, a major Western writer, we have a confluence of civilizations, not a clash, inscribed in some of his greatest essays. In those essays we find English words that are translations of Chinese words from the Confucian }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453\charrsid15025531 Analects}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 , Sanskrit words of the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453\charrsid15025531 Bhagavad Gita}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 and }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453\charrsid15025531 Visnu Purana}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 , and Persian words from Hafiz\rquote s }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453\charrsid15025531 Divan}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 . Thus do cultures permeate one another, so that one who wishes to destroy a culture may find that he is destroying a part of himself, a place where his own traditions continue. Emerson states in \u8220\'d2 The American Scholar, that \u8220\'d2each age must write its own books.\u8221\'d3 His own writing shows both his exemplary originality and his debts to the literature and thought of many cultures. Like the country in which they were written, Emerson \rquote s essays blend the contributions of many nations, forming something entirely new. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 \page \par \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\keepn\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1033 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\f4\fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 { \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 Bibliography \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1033 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 The Bhagavat-Geeta}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 , trans. Charles Wilkins. London: Nourse, 1785. \par Christy, Arthur, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 The Orient in American Transcendentalism}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 . New York: Columbia University Press, 1932. \par Collie, Rev. David, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f4\insrsid10765453 The Chinese Classical Work, Commonly Called the Four Books}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 , Malacca: Mission Press, 1828. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f158\insrsid10765453 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 1960\emdash . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f158\insrsid10765453 The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f157\insrsid10765453 , ed. William Gillman, et. al., Cambridge: Belknap Press, Harvard University Press. Cited in the text as JMN. \par ------------------------------, 1962-1972. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f158\insrsid10765453 The Early Lectures of Ralph Waldo Emerson}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f157\insrsid10765453 , 3 vols., Stephen E. Whicher, Robert E. Spiller, and Wallace E. Williams, eds., Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Cited in the text as EL. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f158\insrsid10765453 ------------------------------ 1971\emdash . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f158\insrsid10765453 The Collected Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f157\insrsid10765453 , ed. Robert Spiller et al, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Cited in the text as CW. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 Hafiz, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 Der Diwan von Mohammed Schemsed-din Hafis. Aus dem Persischen zum erstenmal ganz \u252\'9fbersetzt von Joseph v. Hammer}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 , 2 vols, Stuttgart, 1812-13.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f157\insrsid10765453 \par Jones, William. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f157\insrsid10765453 Institutes of Hindu Law; or, The Ordinances of Menu}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f157\insrsid10765453 , in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f157\insrsid10765453 The Works of Sir William Jones}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f157\insrsid10765453 , v. 3, London, 1799. \par Ockley, Simon, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f157\insrsid10765453 The History of the Saracens}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f157\insrsid10765453 , 2 vols. London, 1718. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid10765453 The Vishnu Purana, A System of Hindu Mythology and Traditions}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 , trans. Horace Hayman Wilson. London: Oriental Translation Fund, 1840. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 Versluis, A}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f157\insrsid10765453 rthur. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f158\insrsid10765453 American Transcendentalism and Asian Religions}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f157\insrsid10765453 , New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f157\insrsid10765453 The Works of Confucius}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f157\insrsid10765453 , trans. Joshua Marshman. Serampore, 1809.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f4\insrsid10765453 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 \page }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid10765453 Notes \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10765453 \par }{\*\themedata 504b030414000600080000002100e9de0fbfff0000001c020000130000005b436f6e74656e745f54797065735d2e786d6cac91cb4ec3301045f748fc83e52d4a 9cb2400825e982c78ec7a27cc0c8992416c9d8b2a755fbf74cd25442a820166c2cd933f79e3be372bd1f07b5c3989ca74aaff2422b24eb1b475da5df374fd9ad 5689811a183c61a50f98f4babebc2837878049899a52a57be670674cb23d8e90721f90a4d2fa3802cb35762680fd800ecd7551dc18eb899138e3c943d7e503b6 b01d583deee5f99824e290b4ba3f364eac4a430883b3c092d4eca8f946c916422ecab927f52ea42b89a1cd59c254f919b0e85e6535d135a8de20f20b8c12c3b0 0c895fcf6720192de6bf3b9e89ecdbd6596cbcdd8eb28e7c365ecc4ec1ff1460f53fe813d3cc7f5b7f020000ffff0300504b030414000600080000002100a5d6 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