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\ltrpar\s1\cf0\qc{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\qc{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b Troubling the Monoracial Du Bois} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab This is a modest project. My aim is to suggest that, based most clearly on his later work in {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk of Dawn},{\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i }Du Bois was keenly aware of his mixed-race background to the extent that we should read his work accordingly. Put simply, I want to trouble or desta bilize the monoracial reading of Du Bois, for the purposes of a future project which aims at reinterpreting Du Bois as a mixed-race intellectual, not (simply) a black one. To iterate, my goal here is not to present a full set of criteria for mixed race, or a theory of mixed race; I, instead, intend to merely challenge the uncritical monoraciality of Du Bois. This challenge comes in two main parts. The first is dedicated to presenting and analyzing the conception and experience of race in \'93The Concept of Rac e,\'94 chapter 5 of {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk of Dawn: an Essay Toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept.} The second suggests areas of further research and reinterpretation, based on the compelling evidence in section one, and addresses what is at stake in and the implications o f this destabilization and what we may gain from the re-interpretive project proposed. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1\qc{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 I} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab While we find resources for this 'troubling' in various placed throughout Du Bois's corpus, \'93The Concept of Race\'94 provides the most straightforward, sustained and compelling case for a destabilization of Du Bois's monoracial identity and conception of ra ce. Within this chapter, which is between his more personal autobiographical chapters and his presentation, analysis, and suggested solutions for a number of pervasive racial problem, Du Bois develops several conceptual threads that are of use to this proj ect. The first two are a sustained acknowledgment of his own mixed racial ancestry, and the changing/changed theoretical conditions for racial identification over the span of his life. Imbedded in this discussion is an account of his (and his great-grandfa ther's) identification as Negro, which reveals the contingent nature of racial identity for persons with a mixed race background and is the third thread.{\super \chftn{\*\footnote \chftn\pard\plain \ltrpar\s8\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\li283\ri0\lin283\rin0\fi-283\ql\rtlch\ltrch\dbch\hich\loch {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs20\lang1033\i0\b0 I am tempted to say \'93contingent and strategic\'94, but that claim will wait for another phase of deeper analysis. Additionally, in his account of his 'Negro' identification, Du Bois makes much use of the idea of 'feeling', which will become significant in com parison to the \'93White Black Girl.\'94 }}} Du Bois utilizes his personal genealogy to develop an articulation of the race concept, as the chapte r title suggests. Given the fundamental role of mixed race in this narrative and theoretical framework, it is reasonable to conclude that the conception of race constructed in \'93The Concept of Race\'94 is a mixed-race conception.{\super \chftn{\*\footnote \chftn\pard\plain \ltrpar\s8\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\li283\ri0\lin283\rin0\fi-283\ql\rtlch\af8\afs20\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\fs20\lang1033\loch\fs20\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs20\lang1033\i0\b0 This perspective is particularly sensitive to the socially constructed nature of racial categories and the theoretical and practical contradictions. }}} I will proceed by presenting and analyzing these threads in the order of appearance above. First, however, a note of clarification: while \'93race\'94 is often taken to designate the entire taxonomy of races (in a given system), when I say that the concept of race in \'93The Concept of Race\'94 i s a mixed-race conception, I do not mean that Du Bois thought all races were mixed. Rather, in \'93The Concept of Race\'94, Du Bois presents a {\rtlch\ai\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i view} of the racial taxonomy operative in the United States as fundamentally unstable, as a \'93group of contradictory forc es, facts, and tendencies\'94({\rtlch\ai\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 133). He moreover sources this view{\rtlch\ai\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i }of the taxonomy from within his own mixed-race background. In \'93The Concept of Race\'94 Du Bois arrives at a conception of race (the taxonomy and its instantiation) as fundamentally unstable, unclear, and contradictory. Since this conception is arrived at through an experience and genealogy of mixed-race, I call it a mixed- race conception, where, again, conception is meant to signify the view of the taxonomy produced through a given method of analysis. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1\qc{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 *} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab Du Bois's first acknowledgment of his mixed background in the \'93Concept of Race\'94 chapter occurs in the context of a class he took with Heinrich von Treitschke in Germany. In said course, Treitschke allegedly said \'93Mulattoes...are inferior...Their actions show it\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk of Dawn} 99). In Du Bois's account, he \'93almost felt [Treitschke's] eye boring into [him]\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 99). Du Bois then notes that Treitschke probably had not noticed him ({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 99). From this very brief experience of Du Bois's, and the way in which h e phrases it in \'93The Concept of Race\'94, we can see clearly that Du Bois was aware of his mixed race background, such that he identified with it to such an extent that he was made uncomfortable by Treitschke's comment. The paragraph ends with Du Bois's quest ion \'93What contradiction could there be to that authoritative dictum?\'94 (Dusk 99), which clearly shows his concern for his own hierarchical status in the face of Treitschke's seemingly unassailable declaration. That is, how was Du Bois, a mulatto, to underst and himself in this framework? The language is otherwise slightly ambiguous in the Treitschke account, leading to an uncertainty regarding the meaning of the phrase \'93he probably had not noticed me\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 99). From this, we can either surmise that Treitschke did not notice Du Bois's discomfort in the class, or that Treitschke did not notice that Du Bois was, himself, a mulatto. Either way, it is clear that Du Bois's awareness of his background leaves him particularly and significantly vulnerable to accusation s of inferiority on the bases of this identification. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab After the Treitschke account, Du Bois then provides a sustained treatment of his family genealogy, in which he directly acknowledges the role of white and black \'93blood\'94 in the Du Bois side of his family, and of the racial contact through which his black maternal line came to be.{\super \chftn{\*\footnote \chftn\pard\plain \ltrpar\s8\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\li283\ri0\lin283\rin0\fi-283\ql\rtlch\ltrch\dbch\hich\loch {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs20\lang1033\i0\b0 By 'racial contact', I mean the interactions between races. In the context of Du Bois's family, and the given discussion, \'93Tom\'94 was a slave to the Dutch Burghardts. Thus, even though his mother's line is without white ancestry, their experiences were still characterized by a certain amount of interaction and identification with whiteness. }}} He notes, first that his \'93known ancestral family [in his paternal line], therefore, consisted of eight or more persons...They were divided into whites, black and mulattoes, most of them being mulattoes\'94({\rtlch\ai\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 105). Thus, mixed rac e becomes a defining, fundamental characteristic of his genealogy. From this introduction, Du Bois goes on to give a standard account of his family tree, beginning with his paternal great-grandfather, the white Dr. James Du Bois who \'93had one of his slaves as his common law wife\'94, and with whom he fathered John and Alexander Du Bois, the latter of whom was Du Bois's grandfather.{\super \chftn{\*\footnote \chftn\pard\plain \ltrpar\s8\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\li283\ri0\lin283\rin0\fi-283\ql\rtlch\af8\afs20\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\fs20\lang1033\loch\fs20\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs20\lang1033\i0\b0 Alexander's oldest daughter, Augusta, Du Bois takes care to say, \'93married a light mulatto and have descendents who do not know of their Negro blood\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 109). This autobiographical connection to whites with black blood becomes a reoccurring theme in Du B ois's {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Black Flame Trilogy}, in which white black characters becomes the voices for racial integration, reconciliation, and true democratic emancipation. }}} } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab Where the Du Bois clan is defined by a tenuous relationship between whiteness and blackness, Du Bois's introduces his maternal line as simply the \'93black Burghardts\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 105). Du Bois makes it seem as though his mother's side of the family was a unified , unproblematic example of free and pure blackness.{\super \chftn{\*\footnote \chftn\pard\plain \ltrpar\s8\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\li283\ri0\lin283\rin0\fi-283\ql\rtlch\ltrch\dbch\hich\loch {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs20\lang1033\i0\b0 It is important to recognize the way in which black and white race intersect in the black Burghardt clan, as the name Burghardt in the black clan came from Coenrod Burghardt, the Dutch owner of Tom. Thus, even Du Bois's 'pure' line of Negro descent is tho roughly imbricated with white European colonial domination. This becomes significant in his discussion of his connection to Africa later in the chapter, and also speaks to the idea of 'feeling' discussed in a prior footnote in his chapter \'93White Black Girl \'94 in {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Black Flame}. }}} Tom Burghardt, Du Bois's great-grandfather, became a freeman after the Revolutionary War; Violet, who was Tom's son, John's, newly arrived African wife (and Du Bois's grandmother), who stands out to Du Bois as the arbiter of blackness \'96 as his connection to Africa - and as a singular and powerful challenge to claims of African racial inferiority ({\rtlch\ai\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 111-112).} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab The rest of Du Bois's discussion of the Burghardts speak more clearly to the next issue regarding his and his grandfather Alexander's identification as Negro, and to the larger theoretical point concerning the contingency of racial identity for people wit h mixed race backgrounds. To conclude this section, then, it is clear through Du Bois's discussion of his genealogy and his experience in Treitschke's classroom, that Du Bois was not only aware of his mixed race background, but related to this fact of his background explicitly, and confronted the racial taxonomy through this acknowledgment. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1\qc{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 **} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab In discussing his identification with Negroes, which I will take up more explicitly in the next section, Du Bois engages the figure of Africa to elucidate his racial position. \'93What is Africa to me?\'94 Du Bois asks. He replies,} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl100\slmult0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab Once I should have answered the question simply: I should have said \'93fatherland\'94 or \tab perhaps better \'93motherland\'94 because I was born in the century when the walls of race \tab were clear and straight when the world consisted of mutually exclusive races and ev en \tab though the edges might be blurred, there was no question of exact definition and \tab understand in the meaning the word.{\super \chftn{\*\footnote \chftn\pard\plain \ltrpar\s8\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\li283\ri0\lin283\rin0\fi-283\ql\rtlch\ltrch\dbch\hich\loch {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs20\lang1033\i0\b0 In the following sentence, Du Bois refers to his essay \'93The Conservation of Races\'94 and implies that this pamphlet is representative of this previous time of racial rigidity and simplicity. }}} ({\rtlch\ai\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk }116)} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 He continues,} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl100\slmult0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab Since then the concept of race has so changed and presented so much of contradiction that as I face Africa I ask myself: what is it between us that constitutes a tie which I can feel better than I can explain? ({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk }116-117)} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab Du Bois answers this question with the common history of slavery and racial oppression dating back to the fifteenth century. Weathering the common disaster and participating in the common memory produced by such extreme and sustained trauma draws Du Bois , the great-grandson of white {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i and} black men, to the vast continent of Africa ({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk }117). Africa, then, becomes a litmus test for Du Bois's racial identity; it becomes a symbol of blackness for Du Bois, which takes on a metaphysical/spiritual dimension in m uch of Du Bois's work. Perhaps it takes on this dimension to allow for the significance of Du Bois's {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i feeling }of connection to blackness, despite his mixedness, which, depending on the time and theoretical background, can call into question the legitimacy o f Du Bois's concrete identity as a black man/Negro.{\super \chftn{\*\footnote \chftn\pard\plain \ltrpar\s8\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\li283\ri0\lin283\rin0\fi-283\ql\rtlch\ltrch\dbch\hich\loch {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs20\lang1033\i0\b0 For example, Du Bois was born in a small town in Massachusetts, with little racial tension. If to be black is to have a certain kind of experience (of oppression) and not simply having black 'blood', it's not quite clear the extent to which Du Bois is real ly 'black' until he journeys to the South and attends Fisk (which, significantly, perhaps, is when his essentialism and racial rigidity are at their peak). }}} } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab More concretely or on the ground, conceptual shifts in the understanding and definition of race - from one-drop hypodescent, which dominated the 19{{\*\updnprop10000}\up10 th} century categorization of the mixed black/white population, to having a mulatto category on the US cens us in late 19{{\*\updnprop10000}\up10 th} and early 20{{\*\updnprop10000}\up10 th} century, to having that category revoked - have a direct effect on Du Bois's understanding and articulation of his own mixed-race background/identity. His is a negotiation of the color line, the border. His connection to Afri ca hangs, like his identity, in the balance. His mixed background, depending on the historical/conceptual context, becomes something he has to respond to if he is to maintain his connection to the figure of Africa/blackness.} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab We see here, then, that Du Bois is keenly aware, due to his background, that race in general and his racial identity in particular are both contingent upon historical and conceptual factors, which set the boundary between races and the conditions for bel onging to either side, or for belonging in or on the boundary between.{\super \chftn{\*\footnote \chftn\pard\plain \ltrpar\s8\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\li283\ri0\lin283\rin0\fi-283\ql\rtlch\ltrch\dbch\hich\loch {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs20\lang1033\i0\b0 Note, however, that Du Bois never claims or flirts with the notion of claiming a white identity. We see, then, that the logic for Du Bois's performative contradiction is more B & -B (where -B is not W), rather than BvW (where B is black and W is white). Du Bois is always non-white/ a person of color \'96 his Negro identity, however, is less given. }}} The contingency of his identity is also elucidated in his discussion of his and Alexander's identity formation. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1\qc{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 ***} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab Du Bois described his grandfather, Alexander, and great-uncle, John, as \'93white enough in appearance to give no inkling of their African descent\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk }106), and thus capable of passing if they had so chosen. However, after the death of Dr. James, the boys were \'93removed from school\'94 and \'93...their connection with the white Du Bois family ceased suddenly, and was never renewed\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 106). This severed family tie, in addition to other circumstantial factors, seemed to have a direct impact on Alexander's racial identity. According to Du Bois, \'93He became a rebel, bitter at his lot in life, resentful of being classed as a Negro and yet implacable in his attitude toward whites\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 106). } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab After noting Alexander's bitterness and resentment towards his Negro identification, Du Bois offers an interesting comparison between Alexander Du Bois and Alexander Hamilton. Through Hamilton, Du Bois presents the vision and the politics of a life of pas sing, stating that } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl100\slmult0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab If Alexander Du Bois, following in the footsteps of Alexander Hamilton, had come from \tab the West Indies to the United States, stayed with the white group and married and \tab begotten children among them, anyone in after years who had suggested his Negro \tab des cent would have been unable to prove it and quite possibly would have been laughed \tab to scorn, or sued for libel. ({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 107) } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 In contrast to this life, Du Bois mentions that \'93Alexander Du Bois did differently from Hamilton. He married into the colored group and his oldest son allied himself with a Negro clan but four generations removed from Africa\'94 ({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 107). We have, then, wi th this comparison between the two Alexanders in parallel positions (both mixed race, both in a position to pass for white), a vision of choice, politics and challenges presented by a mixed race background in society divided along a racial binary. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab This choice is not a completely freely made one, however, as Alexander Du Bois's racial identification seems to have had much to do with his early race contacts \'96 for example, the fact that his mother died when the Alexander was 7 years old ({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 105) an d that, after his father's death, the white Du Bois family effectively disowned him and his brother. Du Bois fails to address the kind of contact Alexander had with black folk, but I would suggest that this omission should be taken along with what Du Bois does tell us about Alexander's path to his Negro racial identity. There seems to be an irreconcilable tension between Alexander's loathing and resentment of the external label of \'93Negro\'94 and his taking it up. Perhaps, given the racial logic of the time, Al exander chose to be black because mixed race was not a viable category and his experience with the white Du Bois's was so profoundly negative. His identity could have gone either way (as exemplified by the comparison to Alexander Hamilton) and the environ mental influences on this decision (and the fact that it was a decision in the first place) challenges a view of Du Bois as incapable or unwilling to theorize the nuances and difficulties of mixed race. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab In fact, Du Bois addresses these issues through his own experience, not just that of his grandfather's. Along with the distinction in the section above, Du Bois presents himself with two different racial identities, which respond and correspond to the ra cial categorization of the time and reveal the changing problems of racial identity for a mixed race individual. Du Bois first notes that talking about race and racial problems \'93as a matter of course and without explanation or definition\'94 is typical of nin eteenth century racial discourse, Du Bois's work included ({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 100). In this nineteenth century framework, then, Du Bois offers his earlier identity/identification: \'93Just as I was born a member of a colored family, so too I was born a member of the colore d race. That was obvious and no definition was needed\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk }100).{\super \chftn{\*\footnote \chftn\pard\plain \ltrpar\s8\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\li283\ri0\lin283\rin0\fi-283\ql\rtlch\ltrch\dbch\hich\loch {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs20\lang1033\i0\b0 In this, it is important to note or remember that \'93colored\'94 for Du Bois is, in some ways, a more inclusive term than \'93Negro\'94. That is, not all \'93colored\'94 people are \'93Negroes\'94, and it seems as though, based on later work especially, that not all \'93Negroes\'94 a re \'93colored.\'94 He alludes to/presents this distinction when he says \'93I was of course aware that all member of the Negro race were not black...\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 100). }}} In contrast to this earlier conception of himself in the racial concept of the nineteenth century framework, Du Bois says \'93Later I adopted the designation \'93Negro\'94 for the race to which I b elong\'94({\rtlch\ai\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 100). In both cases, Du Bois is emphasizing the historical contingency with which his racial identity is given and chosen.} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab This contingency is further emphasized by the fact that Du Bois explicitly states, \'93I was brought up with the Burghardt clan and this fact {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i determined }largely my life and {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i \'93race.\'94 }The white relationship and connection were quite lost and indeed unknown unt il long years after\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 114: Emphasis Mine). This quote needs little analysis, as it straightforwardly presents the self-consciously contingent nature of Du Bois's racial identity. We can infer from this statement that Du Bois's chosen identity might hav e been different if he had been in more (or any) contact with his father's white family. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab If nothing else, we can see from this analysis that Du Bois saw his (and his grandfather's) racial identity as highly contingent on personal, political, historical and conceptual factors, and that he himself destabilizes his monoracial Negro identity tho ugh emphasizing his adoption of it. In this way, too, Du Bois provides a valuable historical insight into the political and personal reality for people with mixed (black/white) racial backgrounds in America from the late 19{{\*\updnprop10000}\up10 th} to early 20{{\*\updnprop10000}\up10 th} century. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1\qc{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 ****} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab As one of the few overt presentations of the racial concept as he sees and employs it (with the exception of \'93Conservation of Races\'94, which theorized race in an earlier set of conditions and concerns) \'93The Concept of Race\'94 is an invaluable resource for in terpreting Du Bois's project. As a center of his project, the complex and messy character of his racial concept evolves throughout the chapter, \tab } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl100\slmult0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab first as a matter of dawning realization, then of study and science; then a matter of inquiry \tab into the diverse strand of my own family and finally consideration of my connection, \tab physical and spiritual, with Africa and the Negro race in its homeland. ( {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk }133). } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 The resulting conception has \'93all sorts of illogical trends and irreconcilable tendencies\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 133). In fact, Du Bois, suggests that \'93Perhaps it is wrong to speak of it at all as \'93a concept\'94 rather than as a group of contradictory forces, facts, and tend encies\'94({\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk} 133). This method of, in part, utilizing one's own mixed race background and experience to express and expose the underlying conceptions of race, and the contradictions therein, and the conclusion of contradiction, construction and contingency is typical of mixed race experiences and analysis of the racial concept. Thus, the vision of race that we receive from Du Bois in \'93The Concept of Race\'94 is one characterized most clearly by its position on the border, with the epistemic privilege of a know er who is in, not of, and possibly in between.} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1\qc{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 II} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab In this last section, I would like to briefly present some other areas of Du Bois's work that are most readily available for a reinterpretation based on the destabilization of his monoracial identity presented above. These are future projects aimed at r eclaiming Du Bois as a mixed race intellectual, with the lager trajectory of creating a richer, more historically engaged space for mixed race identity and culture. The history is there, and I believe this reinterpretation of Du Bois to be a good start to such an ambitious project. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab Here are some suggestions. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab Given Du Bois's later work (which reflects on and reveals his previous conceptions and strategies regarding race) we can reinterpret the infamous prophetic phrase from {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Souls of Black Folk} - \'93the problem of the twenty-first century is the problem of the c olor line\'94 - within a mixed-race framework, which would suggest that Du Bois was interested in and saw as of utmost importance, not simply 'race problems', but the very problem of racial epistemology and the criteria for membership or categorization in thi s or that race. With this interpretation, we can see the ways in which Du Bois's work is a sustained analysis of racial contact and distinction, confronted with particular emphasis on the black experience. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab Given, too, what Du Bois later says about his racial experience in {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk of Dawn}, we can reinterpret his emphasis on the cultural and spiritual aspects of race as a strategy for rationalizing and making available his chosen black/Negro identity, in the fa ce of his mixed racial background. In the context of other work being done at the time on the subject of racial amalgamation and his own mixed-race genealogy, we can then revise our analysis of Du Bois's \'93Conservation of Races.\'94 } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab We can similarly offer a new dimension to Du Bois's notion of \'93double consciousness\'94 by drawing out more fully the connection between America and whiteness and the consequences the American/Negro binary on the mixed race individual. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab Du Bois's texts, especially {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Dusk of Dawn,} betray an ever-shifting identification of the author with various viewpoints, racial categories, groups, experiences, etc. These shifts need to be recorded and analyzed to give us a better sense of the way in whi ch Du Bois's unstable/ shifting racial identity might be manifest in his texts. Similarly, we can review Du Bois's retelling of the Allegory of the Cave, and others of his allegories, with special attention on location (observer, character, etc), for the p urposes of, again, determining the extent to which Du Bois exists inside, outside, and in between the racial categories that defined his life and work. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab Lastly, we can engage in a thorough analysis of Du Bois's {\rtlch\ltrch\hich\i\loch\i Black Flame Trilogy}, which is rich with un- or under-theorized relationships, historical accounts, and conceptions of race that can give us a better sense of Du Bois's last position on race, and a vision of the racial complexities that began to take more ground in Du Bois's later work. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch }{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab At the very least, given the conception of race and his articulation of his own racial experience and identity in \'93The Concept of Race\'94, we have to take seriously that Du Bois's racial identity is not a simply monoracial story to tell, nor a one-dimensio nal model for interpretation. It is, instead, one wrought with the complexities and contradictions coming to the fore in mixed race philosophy and critical studies. As scholars interested in 'the race question', in general, and Du Bois, in particular, it i s no longer acceptable to ignore the (many) aspects of Du Bois's work and life that acknowledge this rich, exciting, and challenging dimension of this thought. To be good Du Bois scholars, we have to read all of Du Bois. To be good race scholars, we have t o take mixed race and mixed race concerns seriously. There is much to be gained. } \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0\sl480\slmult1\qc{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 Work Cited} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s9\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\li283\ri0\lin283\rin0\fi-283\ql\rtlch\af8\afs20\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs20\lang1033\loch\f0\fs20\lang1033{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs20\lang1033\i0\b0{ Du Bois, W.E.B. }}{\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs20\lang1033\i0\b0{\cf1\ltrch\dbch\hich\f4\i\loch\f4\i Dusk of Dawn: an Essay toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept}{\cf1\ltrch\hich\f4\loch\f4 . New York: Oxford UP, 2007. Print.}{ }} \par \pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\cf0{\*\hyphen2\hyphlead2\hyphtrail2\hyphmax0}\ql\rtlch\af8\afs24\lang255\ltrch\dbch\af5\langfe255\hich\f0\fs24\lang1033\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033 {\rtlch \ltrch\loch\f0\fs24\lang1033\i0\b0 \tab } \par }