x_filesize')); // Sort image tag $OC_sortImg = 'current sort selection'; ?> ࡱ> '` WebjbjLULU ..?.?=]*2*2*2*8j*\*,*gp*+"6+6+6+6+6+6+1g3g3g3g3g3g3g$8jhlZWg"/6+6+"/"/Wg6+6+lg 111"/6+6+f1"/1g11`4e6+* h2*(0^b>fg<gcl0vl|ele86+F,1--~6+6+6+WgWg06+6+6+g"/"/"/"/***d !***!***  The value of art as an imaginative practice Dewey, MacIntyre and overcoming the intrinsic/instrumental divide Author details deleted for blind peer review Abstract The arts are facing a severe legitimization crisis. Austerity measures in full swing, the segment many call high culture is threatened by drastic budget cuts. Efforts to communicate the intrinsic value of art to a wider society seem strained and often fruitless. At the same time, many artists feel uncomfortable to justify their contribution in terms of extrinsic social benefits. This paper seeks to overcome the dualism between extrinsic (instrumental) and intrinsic (formal/conceptual/aesthetic) accounts of the value of the arts. It discusses John Deweys and Alasdair MacIntyres two classical American agency theories. Both developed complementary concepts which seek value within human practices. Whereas MacIntyre emphasized the importance of internal standards of excellence, Dewey incorporated a keen sense of imagining consequences in giving meaning to human action. This paper claims that both views imply that the intrinsic and extrinsic values are intertwined and hard sever from one another. Keywords: the value of art, practice, Dewey, MacIntyre, intrinsic, extrinsic, instrumental 1. Introduction It was one of the first initiatives of the newly elected conservative/populist coalition in the Netherlands to slash public funding of the arts by 200 Million Euro, which amounts to about 25% of its total budget. Further, the VAT on art products and tickets was increased from 6 to 19%: they argued art should no longer be in the low VAT-bracket together which life essentials such as food, sport schools, saunas, books, barbers or bicycles. Not only Dutch politicians wonder why public money should be spend on practices with such indeterminate returns and elusive relevance as the arts: in many countries the public debt crisis led to cutting back on subsidies and the art sector has a hard time articulating the value of its contribution to its supporting polity. The leading slogan in the Dutch protests against budget cuts was kunst omdat het moet (meaning arts are essential). This, however, did little to convince right-wing politicians and their voters who felt tired to pay for left-wing hobbies, as they liked to call the high-brow performing and visual arts. The aim of this article is to explore and reconstruct ways of accounting for the value of contemporary art projects. This may enable artists and their advocates to articulate their contribution in a way which does justice both to the needs and struggles of a society and to the autonomy the arts and their aesthetic languages. The dualism between intrinsic and extrinsic/instrumental worth of artistic work is congruent (though not identical) with several other disjunctives. Among these are the pairs of high-brow arts versus vernacular arts and crafts, artists/performers versus. audiences; high culture versus. popular culture. Although both theorists and artists have challenged such dualisms for many decades, they seem to crop up persistently political debates when it comes to justifying the contribution of arts. Above all the dualism between instrumental and intrinsic values hinders the arts in articulating the relevance of their contribution to society. We are developing a theoretical framework to help overcome this dualism by arguing that, within a conception of art as imaginative practices, both value-aspects are inseparable from one another. 2. Arts and practical problem contexts Traditional philosophy of art puts much stress on the question about the intrinsic value of art: answers were sought in categories of beauty, representation, aesthetic/perceptual understanding of an object or in experiencing the sublime. In the 19th and 20th century these categories have lost some of their currency and yielded other criteria like the expression of the artist internal worlds, the formal and material language of the work, the concept, or renewing and shifting boundaries of the exploration and definition of art through art itself. All these definitions see the meaning, the value or the purpose of art as intrinsic: they do not refer to purposes beyond art itself. However, when external or instrumental values of art are neglected or even denied, it is not surprising that people who are less interested in such art-internal matters start asking why art is important and worth public funding. How could a focus on intrinsic values convince people who are not interested in such things as self-expression in paintings by Edvard Munch, the shock-value of Marco Evaristtis living goldfish in a blender or Rauschenbergs radical conceptual project of erasing a drawing by de-Kooning; people who fail to experience the sublime in Mark Rothkos monochrome paintings and who are unimpressed with the material language of Anselm Kiefers lead pictures? How can we explain the values of art to these people who seem to be in the majority? Even the former British Minister of Culture Kim Howells wrote off the whole lot of the 2002 Turner prize nominations as cold and conceptual bullshit. But is it fair to dismiss the arts as self-absorbed and irrelevant to the everyday concerns of people? Artists have made many advances into social and political affairs, and policy makers, businesses and other agents frequently employ artists for instrumental purposes. Some contexts in which the arts make measurable instrumental contributions to societal ends are: Policy communication: Art-media from cartoons and films to music and narratives are frequently employed by health policy makers to educate publics on communicable diseases and their prevention. Therapy: music therapy and painting classes are employed against a variety of psychological conditions such as severe depressions and addictions. Social work: New York Pen station plays classical music to reduce violence; Social workers use youth percussion groups to channel aggressions and reduce criminal energy (Currie 2004). Symbolic power and communicating credibility: Art works are uniquely useful as status-symbols. The perpetuated conflict over the Elgin marbles is a good example for the importance of art works as symbols of national identity and prestige for Greece as national heritage and for the UK as symbol of its world-cultural centrality. Design: the borders between arts and design have eroded during the past decades. Design and communication have become the clearest examples for the profitability of the employment arts in industry. In all these examples the arts sacrifice some autonomy to serve external ends. Art for arts sake is as much a political statement as it is an aesthetic program. It insists on aesthetic autonomy of the arts, the right of the artist to set and follow her own standards, and it proclaims independence of the arts respective other practical, economic and political instrumentalisations. However, this intrinsic value perspective has a flaw. It tends to license a secluded, hierarchical, and often patriarchic model of artistic production that sometimes leads to aesthetic snobbism, self-absorption and caprice on the side of artists, and their supporting insider crowds. In contrasts, a purely extrinsic, instrumental perspective reduces art to an ancillary position. Often this is also associated with compromising on the aesthetic quality of art products. This is why many artists resist justifications of their contribution in terms of social benefits, be they in the short or in the long run. Yet, there are multiple examples in which art can be a powerful contributor in policy making and in other practical problem-solving activities without subordinating to an externally set purpose or agenda, for instance: Art projects negotiate reality: Instead of solving a given problem art can create problems by framing situations and articulating distortions and imbalances, e.g. Kara Walkers tells an American history which connects Jim Crow with the sexual oppression of women. Using the medium of scissor cuts she appeals to the sensitivity of child-like perception and a naive sense of justice. Art works can help reframing decisions-situations: It is often hard to trace how art influenced social decision processes, yet in some cases this nexus is clearer than in others. E.g. the coking-plant Zollverein is an industrial relic in Essen, Germany which was scheduled for demolition. In 1999 the IBA-Emscher-Park organized the exhibition (Sonne, Mond und Sterne) with installations that addressed the specific nature of the locality (e.g. using a chimney as camera obscura and space observatory). This popular exhibition dramatically changed public perception and led to the preservation of the plant. The complex was later included in a UNESCO world culture heritage site. Art works can break a deadlock by helping participants imagine alternative futures: The Conductor and music activist Andre de Quadros embarked on a number of projects in social and political situations of gridlock and despair. He joined Israeli and Palestinian musicians in an ensemble, he entered Indian slums and American prisons with music projects and he started a project with young girls and minors working in Mumbais prostitution scene (references deleted to avoid author identification): These girls have lost the ownership of their bodies and voices by dissociation from them a sort of psychological survival mechanism. Though intensive sessions, classical and folk dance, theater and the Indian martial arts they are led to facilitate re-ownership of the mind and body through gradual discarding of the body language of the brothel. It is in this state that the girls are able to re-discover their earlier selves, and to connect with the pre-brothel lives talking about their families whom they have not seen for years.... It can be an empowering effect to imagine the possibility of an alternative life. Art has the power to (re)form communities: From the beginnings of poetry competitions in ancient Greece the arts have been a powerful social catalyst. Both bringing together and dividing people along lines of sharing songs, narratives, pictures and forms of appreciation. Contemporary examples are communities that form around events like the burning man festival in the Nevada desert or the glass museum in Ravenstein, Netherlands which reshaped the identity of a small town community as a center of glass- and enameling art of international standing. These examples show that art-projects can engage with social and political problems without being reduced to an instrument for goals that lie outside art itself. Hence, this paper claims that the dualism between instrumental and intrinsic value is false and potentially dangerous: within art there is a strong interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic values. For the purpose of the present paper art-projects we focus on art projects that address social-political problem contexts without subordinating to any predefined goal or agenda. This type of project seems to be gaining currency at the moment. One example is the Raumlabor Berlin which is a collective of artists and architects who conduct experiments in urban places. These aim at exploring how public and private spaces can be designed and often yield solutions for both aesthetic and practical problems (cf.  HYPERLINK "http://www.raumlabor.net/" http://www.raumlabor.net/). Theorists have long rejected the dichotomies between pure aesthetic value of the arts and their instrumental and political contribution (cf. Bourriaud 2002). Artists have always understood their work as political, involved and subversive. E.g. David Lamelas contributed a telex-machine to the Argentinian pavilion at the 1968 Biennale which relayed current reports on the progress in the Vietnam war, or Georg Baselitz whose rough, distorted and often up-side down pictures intend to rebel against abstraction, both an aesthetic and as a political form of euphemism. Also the distinction between arts and craft has been challenged as Ferran Adris invitation to the Dokumenta 12 (avant-garde art exhibition in Kassel) shows. It seems that art theorists and artists have successfully criticized many of those dualisms underlying the separation between intrinsic and extrinsic value of art. However, the fact that these questions re-appear in any political debate about funding of the arts, indicates a legitimate demand for a vocabulary that distinguishes between two aspects of artistic practices. We need a transformed vocabulary to re-gauge the position of art projects respective their identity as art and their power to bring about political and instrumental transformations. This should allow understanding intrinsic and extrinsic values of art as but two sides of the same coin. Our strategy here is to define art as an imaginative practice instead of focusing only on the evaluation of art objects or products. 3. Art as an imaginative practice: Dewey and MacIntyre Practice refers to a wide variety of cooperative human actions such as sports, art, education or medicine. As a philosophical term it got much attention in the 20th century ethics both in the pragmatist and the neo-Aristotelian schools. Deweys pragmatism offers an influential analysis of the outward looking characteristics of practices. According to it human action must be seen as transaction, i.e. as situated within an environment, or, more radically, the environment must be regarded as co-author in any action. Transactions are suspended within a pattern or rhythm where habitually successful forms of coordination give way to indeterminate and problematic situations which, in turn, call for explicit re-adjustments. In meeting problematic situations Dewey recommends the method of intelligent inquiry: we act intelligently when we learn about the nature of our situation in view of possible future consequences of our actions. Imagination is central to human deliberation. It is a projective and communicative process that connects possible future outcomes with experience in present situations and thereby gives depth and meaning to our action. We share imaginative deliberation processes by communicating with each other. Communication is the medium in which humans form communities. Communicating we constitute shared experiences and life-forms, and art is for Dewey the most effective way of communication that exists (Dewey and Boydston (ed.) 1969 [1925-1953], LW10.291). Deweys account leans toward an external or outward-looking account of the value of art, but at the same time he recognizes its internal value in identifying art and play: Work is simply an activity which includes regard for consequences as a part of itself; it becomes constrained labor when the consequences are outside of the activity as an end to which activity is merely a means. Work which remains permeated with the play attitude is art in quality if not in conventional designation. (Dewey DE 214). Several commentators have sought the definition of human creativity in this play-like character of practices that internalizes and continuously refines its own purposes (cf. Joas 1996; Jung 2010). Dewey emphasized the continuity of artistic practices with mundane efforts of coping with the challenges of a problematic existence. He was among the earliest writers who challenged esoteric definitions which separated art from life and turned museums into temples. However, he did so without reducing the aesthetic to an instrumental function in every-day problem solving activities. The aesthetic is for Dewey a struggle for consummatory experience i.e. experience that is unified and completed. We achieve a consummatory experience when indeterminacies and problems give way to new meanings which enable new forms of practice. A consummatory experience is a state of equilibrium where our understanding supports successful orientation in a complex situation and our actions match their material conditions. Consummation is not consumption or merely the enjoyable quality of an experience; it is meaningful practice itself when it enters a state of equilibrium or harmony with itself. Art is always an active process which transforms experience and transactions of both audiences and artists/performers. Works of Art are for Dewey means by which we enter, through imagination and the emotions they evoke, into other forms of relationship and participation than our own. (Dewey, AE 336). In conclusion, Deweys approach focuses on external values of action, i.e. on natural consequences and affected human relationships. This account may leave not enough room to make a participants own perspective on meanings and values in practices intelligible. The neo-Aristotelian approach gives the community of participants in a practice the authority to define internal standards of excellence. Without referring to any transcendent ideal or standard of beauty, the Aristotelian tradition can also answers why aesthetic criteria are not merely arbitrary settings by a community but valuable goods. Late in the 21st century Alasdair MacIntyre readdressed the internal value of practices as special kind of human activity that is embedded in traditions or cultures. He defined practice as (MacIntyre, 1985; p. 187): any coherent and complex form of socially established cooperative human activity through which goods internal to that form of activity are realized in the course of trying to achieve those standards of excellence which are appropriate to and partially definitive of, that form of activity, with the result that human powers to achieve excellence, and human conception of the ends and goods involved, are systematically extended. (emphasis added) This definition clarifies that practice and action are not synonyms: practice is a specific kind of activity. In the first place practices exhibit some coherence, social complexity and internal rules. Furthermore, practices require technical skills which are organized toward achieving standards of excellence. The organization of a performance is an example of this. In the pursuit of excellence, internal goods are created, and that the individual as well as the practice benefit from this. What does this mean and how does it work? In order to answer these questions, it is important to distinguish internal from external goods. External goods in MacIntyres vocabulary are properties and possessions. Since they are scarce, external goods are objects of competition. If one gains external goods like a painting, others cannot posses them. Internal goods are also achieved in competition, but their achievement benefits all participants as they contribute to enhancing the practice itself. For instance, if a musician excels by defining a new style of music or by experimenting with new techniques, the whole practice may benefit from that. Engaging in the activity increases human capabilities to achieve excellence and it extends the conceptions of the internal goods, or virtues: A virtue is an acquired human quality the possession and exercise of which tends to enable us to achieve those goods which are internal to practices and the lack of which effectively prevents us from achieving any such goods (MacIntyre 1985 p.191). There are great similarities between Deweys and MacIntyres conception of practice. Both focus on community and the social production of meaning. Both philosophers point at practice itself when asked for the meaning and purpose of action. Moreover, they both understand practices as meaningful only in relation to a social context. They differ in their interpretation of the context of action. For MacIntyre this context is focused on tradition, while Dewey understands situation as both a social and natural context into which and out of which action emerges. This helped Dewey to restore the continuity between the refined and intensified forms of experience that are works of art and the everyday events, doings, and sufferings that constitute experience (Dewey, AE p.9). Further, both authors emphasize the intrinsic value of practices, albeit in different manners. MacIntyre focuses on internal goods, while Dewey points toward consummatory experiences. Dewey tends to neglect a perspective on artistic practice that judges an act from the internal perspective standards of excellence which resides within rules of languages or practices, although he is keenly aware of the cultural matrix within which action occurs. However fruitful it may be to see all practices in correspondence to a precarious context of a challenging biological existence, it sometimes fails to understand the language in which practitioners describe their own acts. Artists do not frame their work as settling problematic situations or achieving a transactive equilibrium. Even if Deweys idiom could be used to cast some true account of their work it will not be an account in their own terms. It is further doubtful how Deweys conception of the aesthetic in terms like consummatory experience or unified situations could do justice to the aesthetic projects of the 20th and 21st . centuries. The point of many recent works is challenging rather than unifying or completing experience. Many movements are hard to frame except in terms of the very practices within which they occur. Art has been exploring its own boundaries in producing new forms of experience and developed ideas that often make sense only to members of a supporting community. Understanding these insider references and subtleties of such a progressing practice can be done by using MacIntyres concepts of intelligibility, and internal goods. If we want to do justice to art as a practice, both in its internal significance and in wider contextual relevance we should read the pragmatist and contemporary Aristotelian resources as being complementary. Using Dewey and MacIntyre in translating art as an imaginative practice, internal and consequentialist perspectives can be defined as two complementary aspects of the same set of values. For Dewey imagination and reflections on the quality in the consequences of actions influence the intrinsic meaning of our action. Also in his definition of art as play he opens ways to reconcile a consequentialist definition of value with an internal view of the value of practice: Play includes regard for consequences but it treats purposes not as external but as a part of itself. MacIntyre, on the other hand understands the point of practices, i.e. their meaning and values as provided by a shared stock of descriptions that define this practice itself. However, he recognizes that excellence not only requires a community which provides standards but also dexterity and techniques with which to handle challenges posed by the material and the environmental conditions of a practice. Moreover, we need to recognize the place of one practice within a wider context of our community and culture in order to be successful in it. Literature Bourriaud, N. (2002). Relational aesthetics. [Dijon], Presses du re\0301el. Currie, M. (2004). "Doing anger differently: a group percussion therapy for angry boys." International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 54(3): 275-294. Dewey, J. and J. A. Boydston (ed.) (1969 [1925-1953]). The Later Works 1925-1953. Carbondale and Edwardsville, Southern Illinois University Press. Joas, H. (1996). The Creativity of Action. Cambridge, UK; Oxford, UK, Polity Press in cooperation with Blackwell. Jung, M. (2010). John Dewey and action. The Cambridge Companion to Dewey. M. Cochran. Cambridge, UK, CUP. MacIntyre, A. (1985). 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