x_filesize')); // Sort image tag $OC_sortImg = 'current sort selection'; ?> {\rtf1\adeflang1025\ansi\ansicpg1252\uc1\adeff0\deff0\stshfdbch31506\stshfloch31506\stshfhich31506\stshfbi0\deflang1033\deflangfe1033\themelang1033\themelangfe0\themelangcs0{\fonttbl{\f0\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\f3\fbidi \froman\fcharset2\fprq2{\*\panose 05050102010706020507}Symbol;}{\f4\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 020b0604020202020204}Helvetica;}{\f34\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02040503050406030204}Cambria Math;} {\f37\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 020f0502020204030204}Calibri;}{\f38\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 020b0604030504040204}Tahoma;}{\f259\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq0 ?????? Pro W3;} {\flomajor\f31500\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman{\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\fdbmajor\f31501\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fhimajor\f31502\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02040503050406030204}Cambria;}{\fbimajor\f31503\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\flominor\f31504\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman{\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\fdbminor\f31505\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fhiminor\f31506\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 020f0502020204030204}Calibri;}{\fbiminor\f31507\fbidi \froman\fcharset0\fprq2{\*\panose 02020603050405020304}Times New Roman{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\f264\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE{\*\falt Times New 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\fswiss\fcharset238\fprq2 Calibri CE;}{\f635\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset204\fprq2 Calibri Cyr;}{\f637\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset161\fprq2 Calibri Greek;} {\f638\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset162\fprq2 Calibri Tur;}{\f641\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset186\fprq2 Calibri Baltic;}{\f642\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset163\fprq2 Calibri (Vietnamese);}{\f644\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset238\fprq2 Tahoma CE;} {\f645\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset204\fprq2 Tahoma Cyr;}{\f647\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset161\fprq2 Tahoma Greek;}{\f648\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset162\fprq2 Tahoma Tur;}{\f649\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset177\fprq2 Tahoma (Hebrew);} {\f650\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset178\fprq2 Tahoma (Arabic);}{\f651\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset186\fprq2 Tahoma Baltic;}{\f652\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset163\fprq2 Tahoma (Vietnamese);}{\f653\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset222\fprq2 Tahoma (Thai);} {\flomajor\f31508\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE{\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\flomajor\f31509\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Times New Roman Cyr{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\flomajor\f31511\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Times New Roman Greek{\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\flomajor\f31512\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Times New Roman Tur{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\flomajor\f31513\fbidi \froman\fcharset177\fprq2 Times New Roman (Hebrew){\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\flomajor\f31514\fbidi \froman\fcharset178\fprq2 Times New Roman (Arabic){\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\flomajor\f31515\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Times New Roman Baltic{\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\flomajor\f31516\fbidi \froman\fcharset163\fprq2 Times New Roman (Vietnamese){\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fdbmajor\f31518\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE{\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\fdbmajor\f31519\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Times New Roman Cyr{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fdbmajor\f31521\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Times New Roman Greek{\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\fdbmajor\f31522\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Times New Roman Tur{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fdbmajor\f31523\fbidi \froman\fcharset177\fprq2 Times New Roman (Hebrew){\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\fdbmajor\f31524\fbidi \froman\fcharset178\fprq2 Times New Roman (Arabic){\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fdbmajor\f31525\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Times New Roman Baltic{\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\fdbmajor\f31526\fbidi \froman\fcharset163\fprq2 Times New Roman (Vietnamese){\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fhimajor\f31528\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Cambria CE;}{\fhimajor\f31529\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Cambria Cyr;}{\fhimajor\f31531\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Cambria Greek;}{\fhimajor\f31532\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Cambria Tur;} {\fhimajor\f31535\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Cambria Baltic;}{\fhimajor\f31536\fbidi \froman\fcharset163\fprq2 Cambria (Vietnamese);}{\fbimajor\f31538\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fbimajor\f31539\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Times New Roman Cyr{\*\falt Times New 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Roman};}{\flominor\f31553\fbidi \froman\fcharset177\fprq2 Times New Roman (Hebrew){\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\flominor\f31554\fbidi \froman\fcharset178\fprq2 Times New Roman (Arabic){\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\flominor\f31555\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Times New Roman Baltic{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\flominor\f31556\fbidi \froman\fcharset163\fprq2 Times New Roman (Vietnamese){\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\fdbminor\f31558\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fdbminor\f31559\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Times New Roman Cyr{\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\fdbminor\f31561\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Times New Roman Greek{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fdbminor\f31562\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Times New Roman Tur{\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\fdbminor\f31563\fbidi \froman\fcharset177\fprq2 Times New Roman (Hebrew){\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fdbminor\f31564\fbidi \froman\fcharset178\fprq2 Times New Roman (Arabic){\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\fdbminor\f31565\fbidi \froman\fcharset186\fprq2 Times New Roman Baltic{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fdbminor\f31566\fbidi \froman\fcharset163\fprq2 Times New Roman (Vietnamese){\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\fhiminor\f31568\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset238\fprq2 Calibri CE;}{\fhiminor\f31569\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset204\fprq2 Calibri Cyr;} {\fhiminor\f31571\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset161\fprq2 Calibri Greek;}{\fhiminor\f31572\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset162\fprq2 Calibri Tur;}{\fhiminor\f31575\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset186\fprq2 Calibri Baltic;} {\fhiminor\f31576\fbidi \fswiss\fcharset163\fprq2 Calibri (Vietnamese);}{\fbiminor\f31578\fbidi \froman\fcharset238\fprq2 Times New Roman CE{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fbiminor\f31579\fbidi \froman\fcharset204\fprq2 Times New Roman Cyr{\*\falt Times New Roman};}{\fbiminor\f31581\fbidi \froman\fcharset161\fprq2 Times New Roman Greek{\*\falt Times New Roman};} {\fbiminor\f31582\fbidi \froman\fcharset162\fprq2 Times New Roman Tur{\*\falt Times New 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\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl1440\margr1440\margt1440\margb1440\gutter0\ltrsect \widowctrl\ftnbj\aenddoc\trackmoves1\trackformatting1\donotembedsysfont1\relyonvml0\donotembedlingdata0\grfdocevents0\validatexml1\showplaceholdtext0\ignoremixedcontent0\saveinvalidxml0\showxmlerrors1\noxlattoyen \expshrtn\noultrlspc\dntblnsbdb\nospaceforul\formshade\horzdoc\dgmargin\dghspace180\dgvspace180\dghorigin1440\dgvorigin1440\dghshow1\dgvshow1 \jexpand\viewkind1\viewscale100\pgbrdrhead\pgbrdrfoot\splytwnine\ftnlytwnine\htmautsp\nolnhtadjtbl\useltbaln\alntblind\lytcalctblwd\lyttblrtgr\lnbrkrule\nobrkwrptbl\snaptogridincell\allowfieldendsel\wrppunct \asianbrkrule\rsidroot1903886\newtblstyruls\nogrowautofit\usenormstyforlist\noindnmbrts\felnbrelev\nocxsptable\indrlsweleven\noafcnsttbl\afelev\utinl\hwelev\spltpgpar\notcvasp\notbrkcnstfrctbl\notvatxbx\krnprsnet\cachedcolbal \nouicompat \fet0 {\*\wgrffmtfilter 2450}\nofeaturethrottle1\ilfomacatclnup0{\*\ftnsep \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\ql 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\li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid4278770 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10228427 \chftnsepc \par }}\ltrpar \sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid16527400\sftnbj {\footerr \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s47\qr \li0\ri0\widctlpar \tqc\tx4680\tqr\tx9360\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid12918297 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid12918297\charrsid5518088 Pragmatism and Environmental Education}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid12918297 | Page }{\field{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid12918297\charrsid12918297 PAGE \\* MERGEFORMAT }}{\fldrslt { \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\lang1024\langfe1024\noproof\insrsid9522029 1}}}\sectd 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American Philosophy }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid7495188\charrsid9782671 and Environmental Education \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid7495188 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid9782671 A Panel for }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid535167 Consideration }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid9782671 for the 2012 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid535167 Meeting }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid9782671 of }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid535167 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid9782671 The Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid9782671\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\qc \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid9782671 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 Panel Abstract: \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi720\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid5518088 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 It is heartening to see that ink has been spilled on the environmental philosophy that }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid15677021 develops}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 from holistic pragmatism and non-reductive naturalism}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 Works like }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid806629\charrsid5393257 Light and Katz\rquote s }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\dbch\af37\insrsid806629\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af37\loch\f31506 Environmental Pragmatism}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid806629\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid806629\charrsid5393257 and McDonald\rquote s }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\dbch\af37\insrsid806629\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af37\loch\f31506 John Dewey and Environmental Philosop\hich\af31506\dbch\af37\loch\f31506 hy}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 , have shown that American philosophy is not only amenable to but can be informative of a responsible and conscientious environmental philosophy. However, pragmatism has an additional benefit to the environmental movement\emdash one that thus far has been largely overlooked. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257 James, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 Dewey}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257 ,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257 and }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 Mead\rquote s work on education can be potentially transformative to environmental education. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid15677021 We}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 suggest that the need to include the environment in education is served well by the tools of pragmatism. It is the aim of this panel to show not only how environmental education can be significantly informed by pragmatism, but also why education about the environment develops consciousnesses and experiences that might be transformative not only for day-to-day practices but also in valu ing in general. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11412912\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid15677021 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5251\charrsid5393257 \tab }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid15677021 Our panel will not argue for reasons to value non-human nature; in fact, we take the value of sustainability and ecological harmony as our starting point for discussion. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9782671 This panel }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid15677021 share}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9782671 s}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid15677021 an environmental consciousness, a belief that we should seek sustainability in our lifestyles, and a concern that environmental degradation poses a severe impediment to our future.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid15677021 I}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257 nstead}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid15677021 , we choose to focus on environmental education and how pragmatism can teach environmental awareness. We share the belief that the tools of pragmatism are beneficial for this sort of education.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi720\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid15677021 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 The first paper sets the stage by arguing that the root of many environmental issues is found in the failure to conceive of nature as a social institution. Drawing on the works of G.H. Mead, it }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid16468130 is}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 shown that social institutions help to formulate our very conception of self. Thus, the failure to connect ourselves with the environment begins at the earliest stages of the formation of self-identity. Following the thought of John Dewey, the paper proposes that weaving a full and thorough conception}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid16468130 of}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2710102 the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 environment as a }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2710102\charrsid5393257 social institution}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 into our education system, broadly construed, is the best way of intentionally addressing this disconnect that is the root of most environmental problems. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid15677021 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5251\charrsid5393257 \tab Moral imagination allows for the construction and acceptance of not only new activity but new structures of value}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14183272\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5251\charrsid5393257 In the second paper, it is argued that there are limitations on moral imagination, as there are on any inquiry}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14183272\charrsid5393257 ,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5251\charrsid5393257 that }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14183272\charrsid5393257 structure the possibilities of moral imagination}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7038014\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14183272\charrsid5393257 This structuring can }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 be done}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14183272\charrsid5393257 in many ways\emdash each way would be a paradigm of moral imagination. A paradigm can be more or less positive and more or less effective in navigating the problematic situations individuals find themselves facing. This paper }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11680398 holds}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11680398\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14183272\charrsid5393257 that there are structures and limitations gained from an ecological education that not only constitute a positive and growth-oriented paradigm of moral imagination for the sa ke of environmental problems but also structure other valuations in a positive and growth-oriented manner.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \tab The third paper will }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11680398 take up}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11680398\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Buddhist pedagogy as pragmatic insofar as it provides a solution to an existential crisis: in this case, the existential crisis of global climate change and pollution. Using confluences in thought between }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid15533543 William }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 James\rquote pragmatism and Buddhist philosophy}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid15533543 ,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 potential avenues to }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7038014\charrsid5393257 explore ecological}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 crises}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid15533543 will be revealed}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 . The goal is to show that Buddhist teaching can mediate the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 tough-minded}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 with the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 tender-minded}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 in an attempt to foster an ecological consciousness that is shot through with interconnected relations. An overview will then be given of one lay Buddhist institution in Japan that utilizes Deweyan pedagogy in a n effort to help practitioners engage with community clean up and restoration.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9385685 \par \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \~ \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid1317230 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 First Paper:}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid12918297\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\s49\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid1317230 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\cf1\lang1033\langfe1033\loch\af4\hich\af4\dbch\af259\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Coming to Nature through Education: \par \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Approaching Nature as a Social Institution through the Works of G.H. Mead and John Dewey \par \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 \par }\pard \ltrpar\s49\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid1317230 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \tab \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 This paper argues that the \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 resolution of the current environmental debate can only come about through the intentional structuring of the educational environment, both formal and informal, to include at every level the concept of nature as a social institution}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid15677021\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Drawing on the work of\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Mead and }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid7038014\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Dewey,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid7038014 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 the}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid15533543 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 argument}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 aim}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid15533543 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 s}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 to show that most environmental problems, and the solutions proffered to them, stem from a fundamentally flawed understanding of the relationship between the self and }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 nature}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid15677021 .}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid15677021\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 By coupling Mead\hich\f31506 \rquote \loch\f31506 s work on the development o\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 f the self through social institutions from the essays }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 The Social Self}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 (1913), }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Social Consciousness and the Consciousness of Meaning}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 (1910), }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Philanthropy from the Point of View of Ethics}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 (1930), }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Mind, Self, and Society}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 , and }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 with parts of Dewey\hich\f31506 \rquote \loch\f31506 s seminal work on education in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Democracy and Education}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671 ,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 I will show that through Mead we have a way of conceiving of nature as a social institution, and through Dewey we have a way of utilizing and deepening the implications of this un\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 derstanding. \par \tab \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 While most attempts at raising environmental awareness, the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid15677021 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 green}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid15677021 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 movement for instance, are well-intentioned and (sometimes) well-planned they fail to reach the issue of identity that leads to the problem in the first place}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 For instance \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 when the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 N}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 ational }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Parks}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 S}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 ervice }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 attempted to pass a law restricting boat access to Kings Bay in Florida during the Summer of 2011 in order to help protect the manatee population they were surprised at the public outcry}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid15677021\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 The leader of these protesters, Edna\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Mattos, argued that }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 w}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 e cannot elevate nature above people.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \chftn {\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s42\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid7038014 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid1317230 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7038014 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 Tea Party Members Tackle a New Issue: Manatees,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7038014 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 Last modified July 13, 2011, }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid729344 HYPERLINK "http://www.tampabay.com/news/environment/wildlife/tea-party-members-tackle-a-new-issue-manatees/1180112"}}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs50\ul\cf2\insrsid1317230 http://www.tampabay.com/news/environment/wildlife/tea-party-members-tackle-a-new-issue-manatees/1180112}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid16527400\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 .}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Setting aside that }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Mattos}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 defended this understanding by appealing to the Bible and the Bill of Rights; her claim is indicative of the common understanding of }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 the}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 human relationship to the natu\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 ral world}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 As long as nature means }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 something-other-than-me}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 we have no hope of fully coming to terms with current environmental issues. \par \tab \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 The key to overcoming this }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9782671 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 hu}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 man/nature division is, I hold, in conceiving of nature as a social institution along M\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 eadian lines. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 A social institution is, in its broadest sense, a }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af259\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 generalized social attitude.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af259\hich\f31506 \'94} {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 Mead continues this definition}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid9782671 \hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 :}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid9782671\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af259\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 The institution represents a common response on the part of all members of the community to a particular situation.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af259\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\super\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \chftn {\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s42\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid7038014 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid1317230 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 George Herbert Mead, }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230 Mind, Self, and Society}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid6228681 from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14946818\charrsid14946818 ed Charles W. Morris}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964)}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230 , 261.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 We expect schools to educate, the police to protect, and environment to be mutually sustaining.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\f31506\super\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \chftn {\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s42\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid7038014 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid1317230 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230 This claim about the environment is of course contentious and unclear}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230 This lack of clarity further underlies the fact the environment is a social institution in a state of crisis. As it emerges as a dominate form of thought we can see what it looks like for a social institution to be developed. \tab }}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 Of course, these institutions can be approached from a variety of perspectives}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 A teacher responds to the school as a place of profession and a student as pla\hich\af31506\dbch\af259\loch\f31506 ce of learning and growth. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 \par \tab \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Once we understand that nature is a social institution, in the same way the military and the justice system are social institutions, the next step is to effect that change in our understanding at a cultural and personal level}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 .\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 This is accomplished through an approach to education that emphasizes role of the environment}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 While the ultimate end is to have the environment be so fully integrated into our society that we are not consciously aware of our biases towards it, this goal \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 can only be accomplished intentionally}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 As Dewey points out, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 the only way in which adults consciously control the kind of education which the immature get is by controlling the environment in which they act and hence, think and feel.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \chftn {\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s42\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid7038014 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid1317230 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230 John Dewey, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230 Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11680398 MW 9:22-23.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 \par \tab \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Thus the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 pragmatic}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 upshot of understanding nature as a social institution is that we have new demand}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9989084 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 s around which }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 to restructure our education}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9989084 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 al institutions}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 to cultivate members of society whose conception of the self includes the voice of nature}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 While this mig \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 ht sound like a draconian call for forced indoctrination, it should be emphasized that the individual has much to say over the social institution}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9989084 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . Mead writes:}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Both must be there: the voice of the community and our own; the ordered community that endows u\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 s with its rights and its obligations, and ourselves that approve or dissent.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \super\loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \chftn {\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s42\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid7038014 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid1317230 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid806629 Mead, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid806629 Philanthropy from the Point of View of Ethics,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid806629 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid806629\charrsid806629 in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid806629\charrsid806629 Selected Writings}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid806629 of George Herbert Mead,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid806629\charrsid806629 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid806629 e}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid806629\charrsid806629 d}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid806629 . Andrew J. Reck}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid806629\charrsid806629 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid806629 (}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid806629\charrsid806629 Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7038014 )}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid806629 , }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid806629 395.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \tab \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 I am certainly not the first to note that many of the current environmental problems and debates stem from this common understanding of nature as something-other-than-us; the \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 uniqueness of this approach is }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9989084 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 the}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9989084\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 attempt to address environmental concerns by arguing that the root of such problems if found in the relationship between self-identity and those institutions that help to shape that identity}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Only by directly and actively\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 addressing this division will we properly address current environmental issues}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 A }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid7038014\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 tho}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid7038014 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 r}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid7038014\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 ough}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 and deep conception of education and the subsequent practices arising from this conception, such as we find in Dewey, is the key}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 What is needed for a }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 greener}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 wor \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 ld, in the poplar sense of being environmentally responsible, is to create communal and }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1004789\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 self identity}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 in which the very need for an argument for a }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 greener}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 world }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9989084 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 would be}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9989084\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 shocking}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 The very fact that we have an }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 environmental movement}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681 \loch\af31506\dbch\af4\hich\f31506 \'94 \loch\f31506 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 demonstrates that \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 we have not reached this point in our understanding, either at the individual or social level}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 Only until we treat nature as a social institution can we achieve this goal}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 And key to achieving this objective of understanding nature as part and parcel of ou\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\loch\f31506 r communal and personal identity is education.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid1317230 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \loch\af31506\hich\af31506\dbch\af4\insrsid9385685 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\insrsid9385685\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Second }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid11412912\charrsid5393257 Paper}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 :}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid11412912\charrsid5393257 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 Ecology, Pragmatism, and Moral Imagination}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 :}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid16527400\charrsid5393257 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 Environmental Education as Moral Education \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid677154 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi720\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid677154 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 Employing the tools of pragmatism as articulated by Dewey and James, I argue that moral imagination informed by ecological awareness structures potential value in a meaningful and potentially growth}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 -oriented manner}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 . I }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 show that what I term the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 E}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 cological }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 P}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 aradigm}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid12284947 can }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 structure }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 moral imagination}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11412912\charrsid5393257 . E}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 colog}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11412912\charrsid5393257 ical}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11412912\charrsid5393257 awareness }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 conditions }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 a f}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 ruitful }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 moral paradigm }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 for }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 the creation of novel values and }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 for growth in ordered richness}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid349235 .}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1903886\charrsid5393257 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8599033\charrsid5393257 Growth}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid677154\charrsid5393257 in ordered richness is the moral goal of pragmatism}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4464438\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid677154\charrsid5393257 Dewey argues }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11680398 consistently}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11680398\charrsid5393257 }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid677154\charrsid5393257 that moral activity is about interacting in a situation in such a way that values are achieved and developed from problematic disharmonies. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid677154\charrsid9989084 Value}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid677154\charrsid5393257 is not problematic as whatever is valued in experience is done so immediately. These problematic values become consummatory values through moral inquiry. What we }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid677154\charrsid5393257 should}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid677154\charrsid5393257 do involves }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5852907\charrsid5393257 emphasizing}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid677154\charrsid5393257 activity that develops one value that works toward growth in ordered richness.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5852907\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid677154\charrsid5393257 Pragmatic moral theory, from its inception is ecological. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5852907\charrsid5393257 I understand}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid677154\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5852907\charrsid5393257 holistic }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid677154\charrsid5393257 ecology to mean that }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5852907\charrsid5393257 the interaction of various parts of a system produce real consequences (such as values) that would not be created otherwise. Two people communicating are creative, because of the interaction }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8267022\charrsid5393257 they develop. This interaction itself is additive to the relationship and not directly reducible to the individuals separately\emdash the community is a real thing.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 We will do well to include relationships with non-human nature in our moral, social, and aesthetic inquiries.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid677154\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi720\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid8267022 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8599033\charrsid5393257 Moral }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 i}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8599033\charrsid5393257 magination}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid329756\charrsid5393257 is the ability that inquire}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8267022\charrsid5393257 r}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid329756\charrsid5393257 s have to develop creative values in a rehearsal space that is }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8267022\charrsid5393257 largely}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid329756\charrsid5393257 conditioned by but not directly active upon the world of activity. With an imaginative rehearsal space\emdash Dewey uses the term }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid329756\charrsid5393257 dramatic rehearsal}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8267022\charrsid5393257 \emdash one can take up values as they take up activities and consider consequences without committing oneself to actio n. Two major points arise from this: First, creativity in imagination is the consideration of diverse possibilities; secondly, there must be some limiting feature of imagination as no one can imagine all possibilities and some imagine better than others. These two points must be treated in turn.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8267022\charrsid5393257 First, it is my contention that imagination}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11412912\charrsid5393257 ,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8267022\charrsid5393257 when it is creative}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11412912\charrsid5393257 ,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8267022\charrsid5393257 incorporates more potential experience, be it of novel value, potential connections in an environment, or potential aesthetic consummation. James\rquote ph ilosophy of attention is helpful here. The focus of attention limits experience, but through playing with attention in such a way that we move our focus onto the fringe, we have access to }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8267022\charrsid5393257 more}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8267022\charrsid5393257 experience. Secondly}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7351919\charrsid5393257 , limitations on the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 moral imagination can be growth-}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7351919\charrsid5393257 oriented or }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid12127018 constraining on }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7351919\charrsid5393257 moral imagination, when they have the character of contextualizing what is dramatically rehearsed but do not limit the rehearsal to immediate desires, habits, the immediate limitations of culture, or to other factors that might detract from growth}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7351919\charrsid5393257 We learn s}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 ets of constraints in education}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7351919\charrsid5393257 when that education prepares us for fruitful, growth-oriented activity}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 .}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7351919\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 O}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7351919\charrsid5393257 pposed to }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 positive constraining education }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid12284947 are}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7351919\charrsid5393257 the restrictive limitations that are developed by mis-educative experience}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 and methods} {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 .}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid9989084 \chftn {\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s42\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid7038014 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid9989084 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 I will use the terms \'93constraint\'94 and its various forms as positive limitation and \'93restraint\'94 and its various forms as negative limitations. }}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 A set of constraints are a paradigm of imagination. Thus, when we are operating under a paradigm, we have a distinct set of limitations on }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 our inquiry}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 . Some constraints are gift-giving paradigms, paradigms of retribution and exchange, care paradigms, and ecological paradigms.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8599033\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi720\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid5902152 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4350533\charrsid5393257 My argument is not whether or not pragmatism in general is ecological, nor does it have to do with settling what sort of environmental ethic pragmatism requires. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 I will have detractors }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11412912\charrsid5393257 in some camps of environmental ethics }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 as my dedication to pragmatism does exclude }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 some forms }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 of non-anthropocentrism and intrinsic value. On my reading}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11412912\charrsid5393257 ,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 pragmatism will always be centered on inquiry in a problematic situation\emdash thus centering on an individual in context and values in process of being valued. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4278770\charrsid5393257 Non-individual centered viewpoints and value}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 -}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4278770\charrsid5393257 without}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 -} {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4278770\charrsid5393257 valuers are not possible to the pragmatist}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5518088\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11412912\charrsid5393257 Be this as it may}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 , we have very good reasons to be as }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 green}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 as possible in the problematic situation we find ourselves in}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 . I hold that responsible }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 pragmatism }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4278770\charrsid5393257 will }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 fall on the side of arguing for an optimal pollution}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 , for paying attention to}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 the }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 carrying capacity of a landscape}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9989084 , and for preserving certain aesthetic }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 values}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 . Working t}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4350533\charrsid5393257 hese }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 problems out }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 is an}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4350533\charrsid5393257 important goal\emdash and might be imperative due to the ecological crisis we are currently experiencing.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8599033\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 But, th}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4278770\charrsid5393257 ese are arguments for a different time, and have been made by others upon whose shoulders I stand.}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid4278770\charrsid5393257 \chftn {\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s42\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid7038014 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid4278770 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4278770 Light, McDonald, Hickman, and others.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 See my \'93Tentative Bibliography\'94 at the end of this abstract for full citations.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14106017 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 For my purposes, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 I understand ecology in practical activity\emdash in the practical valuing of individuals in their lives\emdash to be a paradigm of constraints }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14106017 on}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14106017\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 the moral imagination that has potential for rejuvenating not only human interaction with the non-human environment}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 but for interactions of humans with other humans as well}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5902152\charrsid5393257 .}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4529914\charrsid5393257 The Ecological Paradigm of }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 m}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4529914\charrsid5393257 oral imagination is an imaginative }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4529914\charrsid5393257 space}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4529914\charrsid5393257 wherein moral problems are rehearsed and potential valuations }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 and understood in a}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 n}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 ecological}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 way}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 \emdash or connection}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 -}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 oriented }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 way}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid13001895\charrsid5393257 . It is my contention that this paradigm is a fruitful one for personal and social activity in add}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10250194\charrsid5393257 ition to creating valuations that seriously consider the ecological soundness of human interaction with the environment.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8599033\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi720\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid10047081 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10250194\charrsid5393257 The benefits for social activity }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 gained by the Ecological P}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10250194\charrsid5393257 aradigm are threefold. Environmental education brings about holistic awareness, sustainability creates awareness of limitation, and scarcity is transformed into a category of shared interaction instead of economic lack. In the first case, awareness of connection and disjunction leads to an awareness not only }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 of }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10250194\charrsid5393257 connection to the non-human environment but a deeper connection and interaction with others. Thus our awareness of an ecological whole develops a social awareness that shows growth in interaction, not in self-centeredness. Secondly, the Ecological Paradigm emphasizes that limitation }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10047081\charrsid5393257 develops from interaction and the interplay of parts of an environment. Environmental education is an education in connection and transaction\emdash pragmatic concepts played out in a direct (and often fun}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid9980 \chftn {\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s42\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid7038014 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid9980 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 Fun is often neglected in philosophy, but here is a place for field trips, camp outs, bird watching, hiking, and other such activities as \'93classroom\'94 activities.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10047081\charrsid5393257 ) educative experience}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14422400\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10047081\charrsid5393257 Finally, an Ecological Paradigm deemphasizes scarcity as individual and emphasizes how we share resources\emdash given that scarcity exists but is shared between many parts of the environment.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid677154\charrsid5393257 \tab }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8599033\charrsid5393257 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 Using the environment as a starting point for education accords well with Dewey\rquote s educational starting-point of shared and meaningful experience}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 s}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 Developing an }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 E}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 cological }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 P}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 aradigm starts with learning about and interacting with the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 natural world}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 in an immediate state of wonder and curiosity }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 that}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 can develop into a moral paradigm}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 with potential for development. The Ecological Paradigm emphasizes }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188\charrsid5393257 novel values, can habituate problematic values which require lifestyle adjustment, and can have potential benefits for dealing with social situations as well.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4278770\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid7495188 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid9385685 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Tentative Bibliography}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid9385685 :}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5393257 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid9385685\charrsid5393257 Ecology, Pragmatism, and Moral Imagination}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid9385685 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid9385685\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-730\li730\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin730\itap0\pararsid5393257 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Alexander, Thomas M. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 John Dewey and The Moral Imagination: Beyond Putnam and Rorty toward a Postmodern Ethics.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 In }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 29, no. 3 (Summer 1993): 369-400. \par \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f0\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \emdash \emdash \emdash }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . John Dewey\rquote s Theory of Art, Experience, and Nature: The Horizons of Feeling}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 .}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987. \par \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \emdash \emdash \emdash }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Pragmatic Imagination}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 26, no. 3 (Summer 1990): 325-348. \par \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-730\li730\ri0\sl100\slmult0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin730\itap0\pararsid5393257 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Boisvert, Raymond D. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Heteronomous Freedom}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Philosophy and the Reconstruction of Culture: Pragmatic Essays After Dewey. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Edited by John J. Stuhr. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. \par \par Dewey, John. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Art as Experience }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 The Later Works of John Dewey 1925-1953}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 , vol. 10}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989. \par \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \emdash \emdash \emdash }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Creative Democracy: The Task Before Us}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 The Later Works of John Dewey 1925-1953}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 , vol. 14}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 .}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1988. \par \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \emdash \emdash \emdash }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Democracy and Education}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 The Middle Works of John Dewey 1899-1924}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 , vol. 9}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1985. \par \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \emdash \emdash \emdash }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Experience and Nature}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 The Later Works of John Dewey 1925-1953}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 , vol. 1. Edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1988. \par \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \emdash \emdash \emdash }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Human Nature and Conduct }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 The Middle Works of John Dewey 1899-1924}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 , vol. 14}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1988. \par \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \emdash \emdash \emdash }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Individualism: Old and New }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 The Later Works of John Dewey 1925-1953}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 , vol. 5}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl100\slmult0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid5393257 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-730\li730\ri0\sl100\slmult0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin730\itap0\pararsid5393257 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \emdash \emdash \emdash }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 The Public and Its Problems }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 The Later Works of John Dewey 1925-1953}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 , vol. 2}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl100\slmult0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid5393257 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-730\li730\ri0\sl100\slmult0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin730\itap0\pararsid5393257 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Dewey, John and James Hayden Tufts. }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Ethics}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 The Later Works of John Dewey 1925-1953}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 , vol. 7. Edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989. \par \par Eldridge, Michael. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Transforming Experience: John Dewey\rquote s Cultural Instrumentalism}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1998. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-730\li730\ri0\widctlpar\tx8580\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin730\itap0\pararsid5393257 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \tab \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-730\li730\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin730\itap0\pararsid5393257 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Fesmire, Steven A. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Educating the Moral Artist Dramatic Rehearsal in Moral Education}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 The New Scholarship on John Dewey.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Edited by Jim Garrison. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995. \par \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \emdash \emdash \emdash }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 John Dewey and Moral Imagination: Pragmatism in Ethics.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-720\li720\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin720\itap0\pararsid5393257 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \par Hickman, Larry. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Nature as Culture: John Dewey\rquote s Pragmatic Naturalism,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Environmental Pragmatism}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . Edited by Andrew Light and Eric Katz. London: Routledge, 1996. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-730\li730\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin730\itap0\pararsid5393257 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \par James, William. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Essays in Radical Empiricism. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Mineola: Dover Publications, 2003. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \f0\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \emdash \emdash \emdash }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Pragmatism}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 . Amherst, Prometheus Books, 1991. \par \par Johnson, Mark. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Moral Imagination: Implications of Cognitive Science for Ethics.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Chicago: University of Chicago Press , 1993. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-720\li720\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin720\itap0\pararsid5393257 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \par Light, Andrew and Holmes Rolston III, eds. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Environmental Ethics: An Anthology.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-730\li730\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin730\itap0\pararsid5393257 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 \par McDonald, Hugh. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 John Dewey and Environmental Philosophy. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Albany: State University of New York, 2004. \par \par Pappas, Gregory Fernando. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 John Dewey\rquote s Ethics: Democracy as Experience. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008 \par \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-730\li730\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin730\itap0\pararsid9385685 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Rosenthal, Sandra B. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 The Individual, the Community, and the Reconstruction of Values}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 in }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Philosophy and the Reconstruction of Culture: Pragmatic Essays After Dewey. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5393257\charrsid5393257 Ed ited by John J. Stuhr. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9385685 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-730\li730\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin730\itap0\pararsid9385685 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9385685 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9385685\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid1317230 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Third Paper: \par Reconnecting with an Engineered Planet: \par Pragmatism, Pedagogy and the Greening of Religion \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi720\li0\ri0\sl480\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid1317230 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 In this paper I will argue that environmental historian Brett Walker\rquote s hybrid causations }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4203192 theory }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 reveal}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4203192 s}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 a need to develop and teach an ecological awareness that highlights the web of interconnected causal factors resulting in our current ecological crisis. Buddhist pedagogy}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10567288 ,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 contextualized in William James\rquote pragmatic method and put into practice alongside Deweyan pedagogy}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10567288 ,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 offer}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid10567288 s}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 a possible solution to this global existential crisis. \par Humankinds\rquote attempt to dominate and engineer nature to serve our industria lized needs has paradoxically alienated us from nature and simultaneously made us aware of our inseparability from nature. The twin threats of global climate change and industrial pollution are the consequences of thinking that springs from the human exce p tionalism paradigm. In reality, we are neither separate nor exceptional but rather interconnected in an ecological web of biotic and abiotic as well as natural and engineered environments. Recognizing where the boundaries begin and end is therefore imposs ible}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid12284947 This }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid12284947\charrsid5393257 makes}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 our task principally a pedagogical}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 one of}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 develop}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 ing}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 an ecological awareness of the ever present, subtle, semi-permeable web of ecology. \par McDermott writes that the widest and most profound obligation of human pedagogy is to teach us how to make relations}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980\charrsid5393257 \emdash }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 that is, how to diagnose both the continuity and discontinuity in our experiences, which he contends are }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 cognitive of one another.}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Experience, as such, is potentially pedagogical, if we but pay attention. Buddhist mindfulness and awareness has a lot to offer in this regard. Mindfulness practice is one of the ways that the Buddha taught as a method for dealing with everyday troubles characterized by relationships and pluralism. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14704486 Through t}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 he pragmatic method of American philosopher William James}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid12284947 ,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14704486\charrsid5393257 Buddhist pedagogy }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14704486 can be }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 contextualize}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14704486 d}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 as most useful in providing guidance throughout many of life\rquote s crises, particularly in the development of an ecological awareness. \par Buddhism and James\rquote s pragmatism are congenial to one another in a variety of ways}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14704486 .}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14704486 Of primary interest here are James'}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 radical}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid14704486 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid12284947 empiricism}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid12284947\charrsid5393257 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid12284947 and}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 pluralistic world view, relation and pragmatic contextualism. James\rquote s pluralism, like Buddhist impermanence, is future}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 -}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 oriented; }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 further, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 his epistemology allows for loose ends and therefore can account for unforeseen circumstances. The application of this type of epistemology is pregnant with possibilities when contrasted with ultimate/absolute-oriented epistemologies. Putting experience in proper context, Buddhism is pragmatic insofar as it of fers a solution to an existential crisis. \par Buddhist pedagogy, like McDermott\rquote s global pedagogy, is a fundamental reorientation to the world of experience that views the world as shot through with relations. Using skillful means to teach the eightfold path, t he Buddha finds confluences in thought with James\rquote s pluralism, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980\charrsid5393257 pragmatism,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 and basic human psychology. There is richness in such teachings that often times get overlooked until they are called upon in a time of need. It is during those times that we are gl ad for them and find comfort in their words, not because they provide some kind of emotional comfort, they do that to be sure, but because they offer solutions to real world problems. \par An example of this can be found in Soka Gakkai International, a}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid12284947 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 lay Budd hist organization with roots in Japan and originally founded on the basis of educational reform. Soka Gakkai President Ikeda has written about confluences in thought between Deweyan pedagogy and the organization\rquote s founder and continues to develop these shared practices. Larry Hickman cites four fundamentals of Deweyan education Soka Gakkai is particularly interested in: (1) interactive learning, (2) peer-based learning, (3) service learning}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 ,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 and (4) teachers as coach. Service learning is currently implement ed in a variety of ways such as the firefly project that seeks to reestablish the endangered firefly population devastated by agribusiness and helping establish sources of potable water in Africa. \par The conscious implementation of American philosophy in Japanese }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid12284947 l}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 ay Buddhist teaching offers promises of increased awareness through interactive and service learning. Religious environmental initiatives expand the typically individual oriented teaching to local and global community engagement that may prove fruitful in the development of a more sophisticated ecological awareness. Mediating the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 tough-minded}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 demands of industrial society with the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 tender-minded}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 approaches of the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 greening of religion}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 move ment retains }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 scientific loyalty to facts,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 but also }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 the old confidence in human values and the resultant spontaneity, whether of the religious or romantic type}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 .}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid9980 \chftn {\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s42\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid7038014 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20 \ltrch\fcs0 \f31506\fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs44\super\insrsid9980 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9980 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4203192\charrsid5393257 James, William. }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid4203192\charrsid5393257 The Writings of William James: A Comprehensive Edition}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4203192\charrsid5393257 . Edited by John J. McDermott. Chicago: The Un}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4203192 iversity of Chicago Press, 1977, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid4203192 368.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 By learning about the potentially infinite kinds of relations, (person-person, corporate-government, community-industry, etc.), James\rquote pragmatic method contextualizes Buddhist pedagogy as providing a solution to the existential crises of global climate change and pollution through an ecological understanding of our interconnectedness that is both subtle and complex.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9385685 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5447476 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5447476\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid9385685 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Tentative Bibliography: \par Reconnecting with an Engineered Planet \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid1317230 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-720\li720\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin720\itap0\pararsid1317230 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Armstrong, Karen. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Buddha}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 . New York: Penguin Books, 2001. \par \par Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31575 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\f31575\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 In the Buddha\rquote s Words: An Anthology of Discourses from the P\'e2li Canon}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 . Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 2005. \par \par Cronon, William. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 The Trouble with Wilderness: Or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 In }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Out of the Woods: Essays in Environmental History}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 , edited by Char Miller and Hal Rothman, 28-50, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997. \par \par Dewey, John}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9385685\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid9385685\charrsid9385685 A Common Faith in The Later Works of John Dewey 1925-1953, vol. 9. Edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 . \par \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 {\field{\*\fldinst SYMBOL 190 \\f "Symbol" \\s 12}{\fldrslt\f3\fs24}}{\field{\*\fldinst SYMBOL 190 \\f "Symbol" \\s 12}{\fldrslt\f3\fs24}}{\field{\*\fldinst SYMBOL 190 \\f "Symbol" \\s 12}{\fldrslt\f3\fs24}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9385685\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid9980\charrsid9980 Democracy and Education in The Middle Works of John Dewey 1899-1924, vol. 9. Edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1985.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \par \par Gross, Carl H. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Sokagakkai and Education}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 . Michigan State University College of Education, 1970. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid729344 {\*\bkmkstart _GoBack}{\*\bkmkend _GoBack} \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \fi-720\li720\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin720\itap0\pararsid1317230 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Ikeda, Daisaku. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 John Dewey and Tsunesaburo Makiguchi: Confluences of Thought and Action.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 The Center for Dewey Studies. }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid729344 HYPERLINK "http://www.siu.edu/~deweyctr/resources.htm" \\l "occasional"}}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs50\ul\cf2\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 http://www.siu.edu/~deweyctr/resources.htm#occasional}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid16527400\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 (accessed December 17, 2008). \par \par James, William. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 The Writings of William James: A Comprehensive Edition}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 . Edited by John J. McDermott. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1977. \par \par Kalupahana, David J. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Buddhist Philosophy: A Historical Analysis}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 . Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii, 1976. \par \par LaFleur, William R. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 The Karma of Words: Buddhism and the Literary Arts in Medieval Japan}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983. \par \par McDermott, John J. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 The Drama of Possibility: Experience As Philosophy of Culture. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 New York: Fordham University Pre ss, 2007. \par \par McLaughlin, Levi. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'93}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Dominating Tradition: Soka Gakkai and the Creation of History.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid6228681 \'94}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Master of Arts thesis, University of Toronto, 1998. \par \par Rahula, Walpola. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 What the Buddha Taught}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 . New York: Grove Press, 1974. \par \par Hanh, Thich Nhat. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 The Heart of the Buddha\rquote s Teaching: Transforming Suffering into Peace, Joy, and Liberation}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 . New York: Broadway Books, 1998. \par \par Seager, Richard Hughes}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9385685\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Encountering the Dharma: Daisaku Ikeda, Soka Gakkai, and the Globalization of Buddhist Humanism }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid9385685\charrsid5393257 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 \par Walker, Brett. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 Toxic Archipelago: A History of Industrial Disease in Japan}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af31506 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid1317230\charrsid5393257 . 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