x_filesize')); // Sort image tag $OC_sortImg = 'current sort selection'; ?> ࡱ>  ЩbjbjT~T~ 466+ll8/,[DqPcz+pppppppErXgfpA0qp dppppql u: Addams and Immigration: Cultivating Cosmopolitan Identities through a Transnational Public Ethos of Care Paper: (Word Count: 5956) In this paper, I examine Addams discussion of the immigrant as emerging cosmopolitan subjects through the framework of an ethics of care. Addams call for a moral orientation of care developed in her notion of sympathetic understanding and affectionate interpretation can be extended into her discussion of the immigrant, which develops, as I argue, into a transnational public ethos of care. This transnational public ethos of care implicit in Addams work underscores a social ontology of boundaries, which recognizes the space-between specific encounters with culturally different others. I argue that Addams construction of the immigrant as a model for the modern cosmopolitan subject can aid us in understanding the international impact of transnational identities to American social life. The first part of the paper will discuss the social ontology of boundaries within a global ethics of care. The problem of caring-for vs. caring-about that emerge in the context of how best to care for distant others can be addressed once we recognize the boundary conditions that inform transnational interactions. The second part of the paper examines the social ontology of Jane Addams through a discussion of sympathetic understanding and affectionate interpretation. The third part of the paper will extend these concepts to Addams thoughts on the impact of immigrant life to American social life. I conclude by arguing that Addams presents us with a cosmopolitan vision of the transnational subject that is more firmly rooted within the boundaries of nations. Caring-for vs. Caring-about: Global Boundaries Closer to Home Nel Noddings conceives the problem of caring for distant others through a distinction between caring-for and caring-about. Caring-for entails the actual caring work of a carer directed toward a cared-for. Caring about, on the other hand, entails an emotional response to care even though one is not able to do the actual work of caring. Noddings seeks to rehabilitate the idea of caring-about; however, she recognizes that its success is dependent on ensuring that caring-for is practiced and maintained. This, of course, becomes difficult to assess in an international context when physical distance might hinder the more face-to-face or physical practice of caring-for. Moreover, caring-about might result in a kind of caring imperialism if not grounded within specific caring-for practices (Tronto 1993, 170). According to Fiona Robinson, care theorists, such as Joan Tronto, who have conceived an ethics of care as extending out of its private contexts to more public domains still believe that the only viable solution to address the global context would be to insist that care is necessary for justice (Robinson 1999, 43). However, for Robinson, distance need not be a problem once we understand the realities of the shrinking world. She argues: The notion of the shrinking world suggests that, in some important way, distances are effectively being reduced, and that this shrinking, in turn, has a disembedding effect on places - the physical settings of social activity as situated geographically (1999, 45). One of the results of the shrinking world view is that the nature of social relationships changes, thus fostering new forms of interaction that could be considered face-to-face, such as internet or phone relationships. Distance and closeness are reinterpreted once we take into account the technologies of globalization. Robinson cautions, however, that globalization need not imply a unified humanity. It consists of boundaries in the forms of exclusions, nationalism, and state sovereignties. How we think about these differences must stem from specific relationships in concrete situations. For Robinson, the relational moral character of an ethics of care makes it possible to understand the specific concerns and needs of culturally different others in an international context. An ethics of care does not view individuals as possessing rights, but rather views them within interpersonal relationships. In a global context, a moral orientation towards particular others allows us to view our global responsibilities more connectedly. For example, in the case of global North-South relations, strategies to eradicate poverty would not assent to any conception of formal equality among the disparate parties under an ethics of care. This often results in cases of paternalism or a form of unwanted charity. Rather, an ethics of care would focus on our moral capacities to recognize the culturally different other as concretely real, rather than as an idealized version of humanity. What Robinson seems to be suggesting, but not specifically addressing, is the presence of boundary conditions that inform our relationships with foreign and distant others. Some of these boundary conditions involve transnational practices and relationships that intimately connect us with those who are distant or outside our nation-state borders. These boundary conditions function and are policed within specific transnational practices that involve capitalist and imperialist hegemony as well as mutually engaged solidarity. It is within this tension between nation-states that our moral orientation of care should operate in order to address global concerns. In thinking about the shrinking world, we mustnt shrink the boundary conditions in our analysis of international relations. For example, in the case of poverty, Robinson argues that an ethics of care should pay attention to the lives, relations, and communities of people in developing countries (1999, 47). It is important to see how the boundary condition motivates our attention to the ways in which the lives, relations, and communities in developing countries are specifically related to our more familiar relationships, or more close to home. Following Inderpal Gerwal and Caren Kaplan (1994), the practices that connect us with distant others occur within the transnational boundary spaces determined by forces of globalization. It is in this third place that our moral orientation of care should operate: negotiating through the maze of economic markets, citizenship rules, language barriers, and the translation of cultural value systems. Thinking about distant others requires attention to the boundaries that connect us to one another in an international context. It requires that we look closer to home in thinking about our responsibilities to others abroad. Affectionate Interpretation and Sympathetic Understanding as a Public Ethos of Care Maurice Hamington understands Addams work at Hull House as exhibiting a social habit of care. For Hamington, Addams provides what care ethics has often been accused of lacking: a strong social-political element (2004, 103). It is my contention that Addams provides a unique contribution to care ethics by offering a social ontology to the social and political concerns surrounding the global context of care. I will examine how Addams notion of affectionate interpretation or sympathetic understanding implies a notion of the space-between that fosters social interaction. A social ontology that emphasizes interaction can serve as a way of thinking about how Addams relational model of ethics can extend into a public ethos of care. The notion of sympathetic understanding has often been cited among Addams scholars as an important feature that links her philosophy and work at Hull House to feminist care ethics (Seigfried 1996, Fischer 2000, Hamington 2004). Sympathetic understanding is usually viewed as highlighting an epistemological or moral orientation that values care in moral judgments. Affectionate interpretation appears in Addams essay A Modern Lear and is used to articulate the notion of sympathetic understanding. However, I focus on the terminology of affectionate interpretation because I think her use of this term in this essay highlights her social ontology, which can similarly be understood within her notion of sympathetic understanding. In this way, her notion of sympathetic understanding is broadened to include questions of ontology as well as epistemology and values. This has implications for thinking about transnational relationships of care. While the pragmatist and feminist traditions do not assume a rigid distinction between ontology, epistemology, and ethics, it is important to see how sympathetic understanding has usually been theorized as a moral orientation of care rather than as an explanation of the ontology of relationality. Hamington understands Addams notion of sympathetic understanding related to questions of knowledge. He writes, knowledge is a prerequisite for embodied care because one cannot care for something about which one knows nothing (Hamington 2004, 99). For Hamington, how we know has much to do with the body. Sympathetic understanding brings us into relation with the communal needs of society by sympathetically engaging the lives of others, rather than being limited to ones individual or parochial experiences. Sympathetic understanding is understood as an orientation of care that enables us to become more socially engaged, more related to others. Seigfried understands Addams notion of sympathetic understanding as a social habit that we learn by directly engaging on a day-to-day basis with people who are culturally, politically, or ethnically diverse (1996, 217). It operates within the realm of action. In this way, our sympathies for one another break down rigid attitudes that suggest a singular access to morality. Morality, in this sense, necessarily seeks the diverse perspective that can only be attained by actually interacting with culturally different others, rather than assuming prior to the interaction a single principle of morality. Seigfried understands sympathetic understanding as a moral orientation that values care, important in thinking about what constitutes a just community. In this way, Seigfried suggests that a commitment to diversity is essential in cultivating a non-exploitive society. She argues: Through the mediation of sympathetic understanding, a space can be opened in which the viewpoint, values, and goals of others can become part of moral deliberation and social transformation. Only by letting them speak for themselves and not projecting our viewpoints on them or thinking we can unproblematically enter into their worlds through imagination can such collaboration take place without coercion or co-optation (2002, xxi). It is important to recognize that a boundary space emerges between people such that mutual recognition is possible. The space-between need not be limited to individuals since it also affects the commitments of the communities of which individuals are a part. Social awareness begins with individuals, but the possibility of social transformation happens when communities are open to the influences of culturally different others. In this way, rather than viewing an ethics of care as an individual moral orientation that one can apply to distant others, Addams notion of sympathetic understanding underscores a social orientation of care by underscoring communities flexibility for social change through encounters with communities that are culturally different. This boundary space becomes an important feature in Addams work in thinking about larger social relationships that extend beyond ones individual or parochial relationships. Sympathetic understanding, called affectionate interpretation here is introduced in Addams discussion of the Pullman Strike of 1894. The Pullman Palace Car Company factory workers, working with the American Railway Union, led a strike against the Pullman Company seeking better wages. The strike ended unsuccessfully without arbitration for the factory workers and resulted in the federal government intervening in this conflict in order to open the railways. Furthermore, Pullman received broad public criticism regarding his paternalistic policies toward his workers, particularly his policy that required his employees to live, pay rent and buy food in the company town. In this case, the conflict was between the workers of the Pullman Company and the employer, who thought of himself as a benefactor to his employees who were ungrateful after he raised their rents in order to pay dividends to his investors. Addams compares the tragedies of the industrial relationship surrounding the workers strike to the tragedies of the familial relationship in Shakespeares King Lear. In the context of family obligations, Addams is able to identify the problems of the Pullman strike by recognizing relationships of dependency between the employees and Pullman. Much like King Lear, the president of the Pullman Company felt that the workers strike was a sign of ingratitude for his acts of generosity. However, Addams comments that Pullman lost the ability to attain a simple human relationship with his employees (1912, 2). Addams identifies this faculty as affectionate interpretation and argues that it was lost to King Lear and Pullman as both succumbed to egoistic interpretations of the situation. This prevented both Lear and Pullman from affectively interpreting the concerns of Cordelia and the workers, respectively. Trapped in their own narrow perspectives, both Lear and Pullman lacked the means to understand how other people in the relationship can play a role in shaping their own experience. Moreover, Addams also felt the workers (and Cordelia) possessed a narrow conception of emancipation (1912, 5), which prevented them from finding a meaningful relationship with their employer. Because both sides of the relationship lacked the capacity to interpret the situation affectionately, there was no mutual interest in a common cause (1912, 3). Addams suggests that affectionate interpretation brings the individual out of her narrow perspective and to seek a diversity of viewpoints. However, this move towards culturally and socially different others entails an element of suffering. Addams argues: It sometimes seems as if only hardship and sorrow could arouse our tenderness, whether in our personal or social relations; that the king, the prosperous man, was the last to receive the justice which can come only through affectionate interpretation (1912, 5). Addams seems to suggest that a requirement of affectionate interpretation demands that one must undergo a sense of suffering or loss of ones familiar beliefs and customs. Suffering opens one to the possibility of social transformation. It signals a departure from ones narrow or parochial conceptions and brings one into relation with other kinds of social experience. Consequently, affectionate interpretation not only suggests the embedded character of relationships of dependency, particularly in family relationships; but also underscores how the interaction is fraught with tension between ones individual desires and ones commitment to communal and social relationships. The departure prompts an inquiry into the meaning of ones social relationships. Placing oneself in between ones individual perspective and ones commitment to others requires that one must exhibit the virtue of humility (Addams 1912, 33) in order to achieve a sense of social justice. Reflecting on the old Hebrew Prophets three requirements, Addams reformulates the caring-for and caring-about distinction through an understanding of the virtue of humility as the middle ground between the requirements of loving mercy and doing justly. Solely fulfilling the requirement of loving mercy by giving indiscriminately without understanding the concerns of others would lead to a form of unwanted charity. One merely cares-about in an abstract manner, and how one cares-for others might lead to paternalism/maternalism or possibly a caring imperialism. Solely fulfilling the requirement of doing justice would lead to dogmatic rules and strict policies governing our relationships with others, lacking any sort of sympathy. In other words, one does not consider how care plays an important role in justice and in effect, does not care at all. Between these two requirements, Addams suggests that we should walk humbly with God, which may mean to walk for many dreary miles beside the lowliest of His creatures, not even in the peace of mind which the company of the humble is popularly supposed to afford, but rather with the pangs and throes to which the poor human understanding is subjected whenever it attempts to comprehend the meaning of life (1912, 34). Walking humbly requires us to engage with others regardless of the diverse perspectives that constitute the larger society and ones more personal and familiar relationships. In other words, Addams views caring-about as grounded within the practices of caring-for. This requires work and effort. As Seigfried understands Addams project of social ethics, the transformation is personal, but the means are social (2002, xx). Affectionate interpretation suggests that we find meaning in our moral orientation of care by traveling with others, by walking humbly for many miles and experiencing the pain of maintaining this social relationship. This can only be done by recognizing a third place or a boundary place of social experience that both displaces us from our narrow conceptions and opens us to the possibility of understanding others who come from different locations of social experience. The need for a social morality in ethics is prompted by an anxiety among individuals seeking their actual relations to the basic organization of society (Addams 2002, 6). For Addams, a basic yearning for connection with others moves questions of ethics into social experience. Understood within a social realm, ethics is conceived relationally through the daily experience of living with one another. Addams writes, We are learning that a standard of social ethics is not attained by traveling a sequestered byway, but by mixing on the thronged and common road where all must turn out for one another, and at least see the size of one anothers burdens (2002, 7). The common road represents a boundary place constituted by travel, displacing the subjects from their familiar environments and thrusting them into a situation ready for transformation. It is the common road of experience that meaningfully brings us into relation with one another. This assumes that ethics is not about applying principles generated outside of specific interactions, but requires that moral guidelines emerge within actual day-to-day engagement with the lives of others within the boundaries of social experience characterized by our common efforts with one another. Interacting with culturally different others becomes a necessary requirement for Addams in order to generate meaningful social relationships. Care is situated within an experimental method in which one learns how to become open to the diverse perspectives that make up social life. In this way, affectionate interpretation proposes a relational moral attitude that emphasizes the need for reciprocity within social relationships. According to Seigfried in the introduction to Democracy and Social Ethics, Addams understands the social relation as reciprocal (2002, xxi). Addams thinks that ones personal transformation, which occurs within the boundaries of social experience with socially and culturally different others, fosters an attitude of care that cares for caring. Once one is transformed through the process of affectionate interpretation, one develops, according to Addams, a public ethos of care, which seeks the betterment of humanity (2002, 79). Addams develops a notion of growth in social ethics requiring that communities be flexible and experiment with the diversity of experiences. Being closed to experience and to others prevents one from engaging in social transformation. Addams argues: A man who takes the betterment of humanity for his aim and end must also take the daily experiences of humanity for the constant correction of his process. He must not only test and guide his achievement by human experience, but he must succeed or fail in proportion as he has incorporated that experience with his own (2002, 79). Caring for caring, understood as a public ethos, is grounded upon the daily experiences of those who affectionately interpret the lives of others in social experience. Addams view of reciprocity extends to a larger public attitude that values the work of care in our day-to-day interactions with others, so that the well-being of society is well served. Attending to relationships of dependency in our daily lives through an attitude of caring for caring becomes a way of achieving the betterment of humanity. Addams sense of reciprocity cultivates a public ethos of care by opening up for transformation ones own social ideals relative to the daily interactions with socially and culturally diverse others. In addition, Addams argument for the subjective necessity for social settlements views the individuals well-being as tied to the well-being of society. She writes: that the highest moralists have taught that without the advance and the improvement of the whole, no man can hope for any lasting improvement in his own moral or material individual condition; and that the subjective necessity for Social Settlements is therefore identical with that necessity, which urges us on toward social and individual salvation (1902, 68). Affectionate interpretation makes a necessary synthesis, understanding the concerns of the individual as related to a wider social process. Being attentive to connections and relationships of dependency secures the possibility for social transformations. Affectionate interpretation offers a relational method for understanding the continuity, or relationships of dependency between the individual and the wider society. Affectionate Interpretation as a Transnational Public Ethos of Care Affectionate interpretation can be seen as a public ethos of care that pays particular attention to the ways in which the individual is connected to and ensconced in social activities and communities. Additionally, it serves as a way of bringing this public ethos of care out of its parochial limitations within nation-state boundaries by recognizing that the individuals relationship to a social life necessarily percolates into international social activities. As a notable peace activist, Addams view of social ethics extends beyond nationalisms. The features of affectionate interpretation that generate a public ethos of care can be extended to international social life. However, this transition is deeply rooted in the daily activities that we choose to engage in with culturally different others. For Addams, narrow perspectives lead to critical misunderstandings. The individual perspective prevents the possibility of seeing other points of view and how one can find meaning in social life. Social relationships imply the assumption that we are all dependent on each other, not only for sustenance and care, but also to understand ethical life. Without engaging with others, the individual perspective lacks moral meaning in the sense that the individuals views are not properly socialized. Hamington comments that this feature in Addams thought is a demanding moral imperative (2004, 105). In fact, Addams finds it a necessity to engage with others who are culturally different. Since our experiences are partial, it is of utmost necessity that we engage others who are culturally different in the communities in which we live. Caring for distant others risks the inability to care-for others concretely and makes the moral orientation of caring-about seem abstract and empty. Addams views this problem of caring for distant others close to home. She sees the work of caring practiced within the crowded urban cities where the clash of cultural difference is lived and experienced every day through the lives of immigrants. The crowdedness of social experience suggests that the work of caring is done in a proximate context. Addams is attentive to the transnational social relationships located in the immigrant quarters of Chicago, which greatly influence her notion of cosmopolitanism. Immigrants become important in Addams conception of what it means to be internationally minded. In Newer Ideals of Peace, immigrants embody the faculty of affectionate interpretation due to their social position in society as newcomers facing the demands of the host countrys processes for becoming a citizen. These insights into the lives of immigrants prompt Addams to develop what I take to be a transnational public ethos of care based on the experiences of immigrants as they emerge in her interactions. Immigrants are not distant others in the sense that one need not travel outside the US to meet Italians, Russians, or Poles. For Addams, one can travel quite locally to encounter Italian, Russian, or Polish culture. While Robinson characterizes the shrinking world as a disembedding place due to globalization, Addams directs our attention to concrete embedded places that are transnational, such as cosmopolitan urban centers, particularly immigrant neighborhoods. Given the features of affectionate interpretation, it is important to understand the motivation behind Addams emphasis on immigrants in relation to developing a more internationally-minded way of thinking that will lead towards international peace. First, Addams begins with the assumption that social morality has an origin in social affections (1907, 11). Affectionate interpretation demands that one be sympathetic to the concerns of others. King Lear lacked this capacity and failed to understand the plight of his daughter. Likewise, Pullman saw his role as being a benefactor to his employees, which prevented him from seeing their concerns. For Addams, social morality emphasizes emotion. In the context of international or cross-cultural experiences, this requires a cultivation of moral sentiment that is cosmopolitan in affection. Addams understands our international ethical relationships in the context of our more tribal or domestic relationships (1907, 11). She argues that a double conception of morality divides our ethical actions. The first conception is the relation within a tribe or social group. The second is the relation to outsiders. However, these must be combined in order to develop an international model for peace. Otherwise, these divided sets of ethical actions will take on militarizing habits that will ultimately lead to war. In combining these two ethical postures, what we ought to do in our country and what we ought to do with outsiders, Addams argues that we should naturally seek for [the synthesis of the two ethical postures] in the poorer quarters of a cosmopolitan city (1907, 12). In seeking the development of this cosmopolitan social sentiment, we should look to more concrete social experiences that address cross-cultural relationships, such as the life of immigrants. Addams recognizes that emotional sentiment runs high among newly arrived immigrants (1907, 13) due to their own displaced status in a new country. Displacement cultivates an unusual mental alertness and power of perception (1907, 14). Immigrants have traveled, in the sense that they are willing to revise their cultural habits and renounce social customs they have practiced for many generations. In other words, they are willing to open themselves up for transformation. They are willing to participate in a larger social life that sometimes demands casting aside accepted customs and habits. Immigrants are also in a unique position to settle or seek companionship in a new world and thus inevitably develop the power of association which comes from daily contact with those who are unlike each other (1907, 14). Immigrants embody epistemic locations that can provide insight into the relationship between the domestic and the international. These epistemic locations take on the character of the space-between, which inhabit the interactions of immigrants and their host community. Through these interactions, immigrants contribute to the very make-up of their host community. Addams argues that just as immigrants hopes and dreams can be instructive in shaping city government, education, and charity work, so their daily lives are a forecast of coming international relations (1907,16). Addams commitment to experience can launch our inquiries into a cosmopolitan social morality in crowded cities. Crowded cities require a deeper and more thoroughgoing unity that only could be had among a highly differentiated people (1907, 16), rather than more stable and homogenous social collectivities. A commingling of many different kinds of people expresses a type of unity that negotiates a balance of opposing views and forces. The unity gravitates towards the common road or the daily interactions of people. Resolution of differences can only be accomplished through social means. Addams writes: It is natural that this synthesis of the varying nations should be made first at the points of the greatest congestion, quite as we find that selfishness is first curbed and social feeling created at the points where the conflict of individual interests is sharpest (1907, 17). Addams believes that through these daily encounters, narrow nationalist perspectives can be challenged, providing us with important insights into the development of an international public ethos of care towards peace. At times, it is clear that Addams in these passages of Newer Ideals of Peace romanticizes the possibilities of cultivating a cosmopolitan sentiment for a social morality through the figure of the immigrant. She refers to them as humble harbingers of the Newer Ideals of Peace (1907, 19) or the kindly citizens of the world (1907, 18). In fact, one might argue that she places an unusual degree of responsibility on the immigrant, particularly in that the difficult task of living in a host country usually occupies their priorities, rather than becoming saints of cosmopolitanism, the bearers of international peace. More critically, Rivka Shpak Lissak argues that Addams strategy of incorporating immigrants has assimilationist motives, rather than making a place for their specific ethnic traditions to play a role in American life (1989, 9). Addams, however, is too entrenched in the daily lives of immigrants through her work in Hull House to make this idealistic and romanticized judgment. It is not their political positions regarding war and peace that make their situation promising. In fact, Addams suggests that many immigrants have advocated for war, rather than peace. The importance for Addams lies in the fact that they are really attaining cosmopolitan relations through daily experience (1907, 18). Through interactions with immigrants, Addams believes there is hope in uncovering the vital relation - that of the individual to the race (1907, 19). This is a task not only for immigrants. It is a mutual task that involves a caring attention, which involves utilizing the faculty of affectionate interpretation, and recognizing a transnational space of interaction that encompasses the realities of the immigrants life. Addams employs a version of affectionate interpretation by highlighting the social interactions within transnational relationships that bring us into relation with culturally different others that extend outside our nation-state borders. Both the lives of immigrants and ones specific interactions with immigrants serve as transnational relationships where ones work of care is placed between social relationships that are not limited to the dichotomy of ethical postures, either focusing on relations within a domestic polity or with foreign others. By highlighting these social relationships with immigrants, Addams directs our analysis of cosmopolitanism to a realm of action and experience that pays particular attention to ones relationship with those who are considered both outside of and a part of a domestic polity. Addams calls upon our skills of affectionate interpretation towards immigrants in the areas of the Americanization of immigrants and the education of immigrant children. According to Addams, rather than assimilating immigrants in the US through abstract concepts, such as rights or mere memorization of phrases of the constitution, we need to listen to their experiences of living in their country of origin. She argues, We believed that America could be best understood by the immigrants if we ourselves, Americans, made some sort of a connection with their past history and experiences (2002, 244). In this sense, Addams encourages us to stake ourselves and become open for transformation, as Americans, in our engagement with immigrants, thereby developing a new national narrative alongside the narrative of the immigrant. This would lead to widespread discussion of what it means to be an American in relation to the experiences of culturally different others. In the case of the education of immigrant children, Addams encourages teachers to learn about the cultures of their students. In The Public School and the Immigrant Child, Addams redirects the destinations of travel to more local situations. For Addams, the shrinking world is apparent in our own communities. One must seek these interactions and help restore to immigrants the knowledge of their culture, rather than viewing knowledge of other cultures as to be found strictly outside of the nation-state boundary. In these two instances, Addams encourages social habits of cosmopolitanism and brings the public ethos of care to international contexts. These two processes in understanding the immigrant highlight the transnational spaces that determine the immigrants life, as well as invite new forms of international relationships to emerge in a domestic context, at home. In other words, the result of a social synthesis of the domestic and international relations occurs within transnational social relations between nations. What I take to be Addams transnational social ethos of care encourages Americans to develop cosmopolitan affectionate interpretations by achieving the sense of a common ground between culturally different others. This notion of a common ground emerges in Addams work with immigrants in understanding cosmopolitan artwork and the formation of the Labor Museum. In one scenario at Hull House, Addams recounts an encounter with an old pioneer, who was fiercely American and thought the decline of the neighborhood was the fault of the rising numbers of foreigners settling into the cities. The old man complained to Addams of the many foreign artworks that decorated the walls of Hull House. Addams responds: I endeavored to set forth our hope that the pictures might afford a familiar island to the immigrants in a sea of new and strange impressions. The old settler guest, taken off his guard, replied, I see; they feel as we did when we saw a Yankee notion from Down East, thereby formulating the dim kinship between the pioneer and the immigrant, both buffeting the waves of a new development (1902, 58). The Labor Museum, which featured many crafts from the immigrants country of origin, facilitated presentations and workshops to help restore to the immigrants their past histories and traditions and bring them into relation with American cultural experiences. Addams thought the Labor Museum could be a model for that educational enterprise which should build a bridge between European and American experiences in such wise as to give them both more meaning and a sense of relation (1902, 127). In this way, cultural misunderstanding could be mitigated once a larger relation or a common ground was established between the immigrant and American culture. Both instances strive to facilitate mutual understanding and synthesize the international and the domestic relation by providing the context, defined by certain practices and action such as artwork and the Labor Museum, in which citizens can be brought into relation with one another. This new relationship forges a new sense of what American life means. Addams adds to an ethics of care a way of envisioning our relationships of dependency nested within transnational spaces of interaction, particularly in the case of immigrant neighborhoods. She understands the moral orientation of care to distant others closer to home by emphasizing the ways in which we concretely relate to culturally different others through interactions with immigrants. By situating the problem of caring for distant others within the context of ones day-to-day encounters with culturally and ethnically diverse immigrants, one is able to develop a more cosmopolitan spirit based in concrete and embedded relationships with culturally different others, rather than abstractly caring-about geographically distant others. Addams emphasizes the transnational relationships that are conditioned by our choices to attend to these diverse perspectives, and which anchors our moral orientation to distant others within concrete and embedded social relationships within our specific interactions with immigrants. Her public ethos of care as characterized by her notion of affectionate interpretation is transformed into a cosmopolitan sentiment as she seeks unity with other nations to further her activist goals of peace. Works Cited Addams, Jane. 1907. Newer Ideals of Peace. London: MacMillan Company. Addams, Jane. 1912. A Modern Lear Survey 29 (November 2, 1912): 131-137. Addams, Jane. 2002. Americanization in Jane Addams Reader. Edited by Jean Bethke Elshtain. New York: Basic Books. 240-247. Addams, Jane. 2002. The Public School and the Immigrant in Jane Addams Reader. Edited by Jean Bethke Elshtain. New York: Basic Books. 235-239. Addams, Jane. 2002. Democracy and Social Ethics. Introduction by Charlene Haddock Siegfried. University of Illinois: Chicago. Addams, Jane. 2006. Twenty Years at Hull House. Dodo Press. Fischer, Marilyn. 2000. Jane Addams Feminist Ethics in Presenting Women Philsophers. Ed. Cecile T. Tougas and Sara Ebenreck. 51-58. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Hamington, Maurice. 2004. Embodied Care: Jane Addams, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Feminist Ethics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press Lissak, Rivka Shpak. 1989. Pluralism and Progressives: Hull House and the New Immigrants, 1890-1910. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. Noddings, Nel. 2002. Starting at Home: Caring and Social Policy. Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. Robinson, Fiona. 1999. Globalizing Care: Ethics, Feminist Theory and International Relations. Westview Press. Seigfried, Charlene Haddock. 1996. Feminism and Pragmatism: Reweaving the Social Fabric. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Tronto, Joan. 1993. Moral Boundaries: A Political Argument for an Ethic of Care. New York: Routledge.  I understand boundary conditions as emerging within the global context of care. Boundaries emerge once exploitation and power hierarchies determine rules of inclusions and exclusions. I understand these boundary conditions as an emerging ontological space of cross-cultural interaction that relates culturally different others by highlighting the common ground culturally different actors share.  Addams discusses an example of the charity visitor who visits tenement homes in Chicago. Addams identifies the charity visitors failed attempts to help these families that the charity visitor as her not open to her own social transformation. The charity she gives becomes empty and abstract to the lives of the tenement families she visits. Addams argues, the young woman who has succeeded in expressing her social compunction through charitable effort finds that the wider social activity, and the contact with the larger experience, not only increases her sense of social obligation but at the same time recasts her social ideals (2002, 33).  Addams thinks that a morality built upon a rigid separation between our relations with our domestic polity and our relations with outsiders cultivates a militaristic attitude since there isnt a common ground that can be shared between the two social relationships. In Democracy or Militarism, Addams makes the case that peace is the unfolding of life processes which are making for a common development (1). Without an understanding of how we, as a domestic polity, might relate to foreign others, a militaristic spirit develops.  Seigfried argues in a footnote in the introduction to Addams Democracy and Social Ethics that Lissak misunderstands Addams philosophical project and thus misreads Addams analysis of immigrants (2002, xxxv).      PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1 Fijkr     6 C ~ 9Fi{?  #$CY^f`!!"" "½̪̪ЮУأ hUGUh%wjh%w0JUh%w h&uph%wh>Y- h&uphkGh'h'5 h'5 hkG5 hX5h$Y-dgd' d`gd)+zdgd)+z$d`a$gd? "_"`"##(())55Y6Z66699==>>??@@CCCCDD^EaEPFqFFFIIKYMZM[M"T=TVTuTTT6ULUV VtVuVVW3XSX[ [[[Ѿضدѫўjhqp h*0JUh7 h&uph*hKh*6 hUGUh*h.hho4h*6 hqp h* hKh*hT[hXh-/h*h-/h*6hUGUh-/6>,/=0115:>?@@C-HlHIIZMDRWTXUX![[5]6] <^`<gd* d`gd*gd*^gd*dgd*[]4]]^6^^^!_r`u`bb'b*bZbAdCdeehhiijjjjHnNnqqrquuwvxvgxhx{;{1|Q|||||.}9}e}z}`yzTUޑwrth$666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666hH6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666662 0@P`p2( 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p8XV~ OJPJQJ_HmH nH sH tH P`P *Normal(CJOJPJQJ^J_HaJmH sH tH DA`D Default Paragraph FontRi@R 0 Table Normal4 l4a (k ( 0No List >@> * Footnote TextCJaJTT *Footnote Text CharCJOJPJQJ^JaJ@&@@ *Footnote ReferenceH*4@"4 [0Header H$F1F [0 Header CharCJOJPJQJ^JaJ4 B4 [0Footer H$FQF [0 Footer CharCJOJPJQJ^JaJPK![Content_Types].xmlj0Eжr(΢Iw},-j4 wP-t#bΙ{UTU^hd}㨫)*1P' ^W0)T9<l#$yi};~@(Hu* Dנz/0ǰ $ X3aZ,D0j~3߶b~i>3\`?/[G\!-Rk.sԻ..a濭?PK!֧6 _rels/.relsj0 }Q%v/C/}(h"O = C?hv=Ʌ%[xp{۵_Pѣ<1H0ORBdJE4b$q_6LR7`0̞O,En7Lib/SeеPK!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xml M @}w7c(EbˮCAǠҟ7՛K Y, e.|,H,lxɴIsQ}#Ր ֵ+!,^$j=GW)E+& 8PK!Ptheme/theme/theme1.xmlYOo6w toc'vuر-MniP@I}úama[إ4:lЯGRX^6؊>$ !)O^rC$y@/yH*񄴽)޵߻UDb`}"qۋJחX^)I`nEp)liV[]1M<OP6r=zgbIguSebORD۫qu gZo~ٺlAplxpT0+[}`jzAV2Fi@qv֬5\|ʜ̭NleXdsjcs7f W+Ն7`g ȘJj|h(KD- dXiJ؇(x$( :;˹! I_TS 1?E??ZBΪmU/?~xY'y5g&΋/ɋ>GMGeD3Vq%'#q$8K)fw9:ĵ x}rxwr:\TZaG*y8IjbRc|XŻǿI u3KGnD1NIBs RuK>V.EL+M2#'fi ~V vl{u8zH *:(W☕ ~JTe\O*tHGHY}KNP*ݾ˦TѼ9/#A7qZ$*c?qUnwN%Oi4 =3ڗP 1Pm \\9Mؓ2aD];Yt\[x]}Wr|]g- eW )6-rCSj id DЇAΜIqbJ#x꺃 6k#ASh&ʌt(Q%p%m&]caSl=X\P1Mh9MVdDAaVB[݈fJíP|8 քAV^f Hn- "d>znNJ ة>b&2vKyϼD:,AGm\nziÙ.uχYC6OMf3or$5NHT[XF64T,ќM0E)`#5XY`פ;%1U٥m;R>QD DcpU'&LE/pm%]8firS4d 7y\`JnίI R3U~7+׸#m qBiDi*L69mY&iHE=(K&N!V.KeLDĕ{D vEꦚdeNƟe(MN9ߜR6&3(a/DUz<{ˊYȳV)9Z[4^n5!J?Q3eBoCM m<.vpIYfZY_p[=al-Y}Nc͙ŋ4vfavl'SA8|*u{-ߟ0%M07%<ҍPK! ѐ'theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsM 0wooӺ&݈Э5 6?$Q ,.aic21h:qm@RN;d`o7gK(M&$R(.1r'JЊT8V"AȻHu}|$b{P8g/]QAsم(#L[PK-![Content_Types].xmlPK-!֧6 +_rels/.relsPK-!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xmlPK-!Ptheme/theme/theme1.xmlPK-! ѐ' theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsPK] SqixС9С  *****- "[tЩUWY\`,6]rϩЩVXZ[]^_a $&-!L# AA@0(  B S  ?@H  ^ d z ")"$$ ')'''d)u)4455>>C CL LGcScwwwwwwwxBHciks5@PV`hؗ"(*/05˜Ęǘ+1Ϡؠ.4ˡˡΡѡ ""%8&C\\csˡˡΡѡ33333ˡˡѡ*?n# (2*>Y-*4;eI1P.h$?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abdefghijlmnopqrstuvwxyz|}~Root Entry FIyXgData c1TablekWordDocument4SummaryInformation({DocumentSummaryInformation8CompObjy  F'Microsoft Office Word 97-2003 Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q